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Accomplishments Project

One project in the Accomplishments module.


Any document approved by two or more parties that identifies their roles and responsibilities in achieving mutual objectives (e.g. Memorandum of Agreement, Memorandum of Understanding, Cooperative Agreement, Grant, Contract) (FWS Native American Policy).

Applied Science

Science used in actual practice or used to work out actual problems (Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 1992).


Agreed upon and sanctioned by the parties involved.

Aquatic Nuisance Species

Introduced, exotic, or transplanted species, including viruses, bacteria, protozoans, and parasites, that threaten the diversity or abundance of native species or the ecological stability of infested waters, or commercial, agricultural, aquacultural or recreational activities dependent on those waters (Fisheries Program Vision for the Future).


An individual item or group of similar items of real property valued at $5,000 or more that is/are documented in the Real Property Inventory, or individual item of equipment that is documented in the Personal Property Inventory.



Any historic or collected data that is used as a control or "benchmark" to make comparisons with expected or actual conditions.

Broodstock Maintenance

An activity that provides direct or indirect contribution to maintaining spawning population of aquatic species to produce eggs or milt for hatchery propagation programs and conservation efforts. This includes the stocking of retired, excess, or culled broodstock.


Candidate Species

Any species being considered by the Secretary for listing as an endangered or a threatened species, but not yet the subject of a proposed rule (50 C.F.R. 424.02).


Pertaining to Regional Fisheries Program strategic plans, refers to explicit obstacles (challenges) that stand in the path of accomplishing objectives, and favorable circumstances (opportunities) for progress or advancement. "Challenges" is analogous to the planning term "problems" in Meffe et al. (2002).

Commercial Activity

An activity that provides or enhances commercial fishing opportunities.


An assemblage of multiple species populations occupying a given area.

Condition Assessment

Periodic inspection by qualified personnel to fully determine and document the existence and condition of an asset or item of equipment and identify maintenance needs and associated repair costs, if any.


Management, restoration, and protection of self-sustaining and imperiled species populations (Fisheries Program Vision for the Future).

Conservation Exchange

An activity the Service performs for a non-Federal entity in return for that entity fulfilling an activity that meets a Service need.

Cooperative Agreement

See Grant.

Core Request Information

Core request information is any information that directly relates to the distribution of the fish or eggs such as the date, strains, location, or amount requested.

Current Office

The FWS office associated with the session of the FIS user. By default, this is the FWS office associated with the user's ECOS profile. However, certain super users in FIS have the ability to change their current office in order to edit the data of a different office.


Deepwater Habitat

Permanently flooded lands lying below the deepwater boundary of wetlands. The boundary between wetland and deepwater habitat in tidal areas is the elevation of the extreme low water of spring tides. The boundary between wetlands and the deepwater habitats of lakes and rivers lies at a depth of 2 meters (6.6 feet) below low water. If emergents, shrubs, or trees grow beyond this depth at any time, their deepwater edge is the boundary.

DeFacto Mitigation

Used only for the Mitigation Classification Category, an activity that is authorized but not specifically required by one or more Federal legislative acts.

Deferred Maintenance

Maintenance that was not performed when it should have been or when it was scheduled and which, therefore, was put off or delayed for a future period (adapted from FASAB No.6).


A process for removing a species from the lists of threatened and endangered species, pursuant to 50 C.F.R. 424.11.

Depleted Population

A population whose abundance or other appropriate measure is below its management goals, or, in the absence of management goals, a population considered to be below historical levels. Does not include populations listed as candidate, threatened, or endangered under the Endangered Species Act.


Depth, in feet, of the water as recorded on the vessel trip sheet.


The act of releasing aquatic species from one station to a body of water or to another station.

DOI Authority or Influence

Owned or regulated by the Department of the Interior, or where the Department has a partnership role, or where DOI has jurisdiction because of listed species, i.e. critical habitat.



A geographic area including all the living organisms (people, plants, animals, and microorganisms), their physical surroundings (such as soil, water, and air), and the natural cycles that sustain them ( ). For purposes of the Fisheries Program, ecosystems are delineated along the 53 FWS ecosystem units.

Ecosystem Plan

A planning document for the restoration and/or management of any of the 53 standard FWS ecosystem units or other appropriate scale. Generally describes the historic and current characteristics of the ecosystem and outlines goals, objectives, and/or recommendations to maintain or reestablish its function to a state of being at, or somewhere between, its historic state and current functional state. (See Meffe et al. 2002; see also


Water and associated suspended and dissolved materials included within the discharge stream (point-source or otherwise) from a facility using water (e.g., aquaculture facility/NFHS cultural station).

Endangered Species

A species listed under the Endangered Species Act as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range (50 C.F.R. 424.02).

Enhancement (Population)

Stocking fish or other aquatic species to augment existing native populations with additional individuals in order to reach self-sustaining population levels, appropriate genetic diversity, or improve a fishery. Population-specific criteria for achievement of enhancement are defined in a plan or agreement.

Enhancement (Habitat)

The manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a habitat site (undisturbed or degraded) to heighten, intensify, or improve specific function(s) or to change the growth stage or composition of the vegetation present. Enhancement is undertaken for a purpose such as water quality improvement, flood water retention or wildlife habitat. Enhancement results in a change in habitat function(s), but does not result in a gain in habitat size (e.g., length, area, or volume). This term includes activities commonly associated with the terms, improvement, enhancement, management, manipulation, or directed alteration. Site-specific criteria for achievement of enhancement are defined in a plan or agreement.


Moveable items used in day_to_day activities for the purpose of fulfilling the Service's mission. These items have an acquisition cost of $5,000 or more or are sensitive property items that include automobiles, trucks, heavy machinery, boats, all_terrain vehicles, weapons, and shop/laboratory/office appliances including laptop computers. These items are cataloged in the Personal Property Inventory database.

EPA Approved Water Quality Standards

The Water Quality Standards Regulation (40 CFR 131) describes State requirements and procedures for developing, reviewing, revising, and adopting water quality standards (WAS), and EPA requirements and procedure for reviewing, approving, disapproving, and promulgating water quality standards as authorized by section 303 (c) of the Clean Water Act.

Established Species

Organisms present and reproducing "in the wild" whose numbers, distribution, and persistence over time suggest that, barring unforeseen catastrophic events or successful eradication efforts, they will continue to be present in the future. "In the wild" implies reproduction and persistence of the population without direct human intervention or assistance (Cohen and Carlton 1995).

Established (Habitat)

The manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics present to develop habitat that did not previously exist on the site. Establishment results in a gain in habitat size (e.g., length, area, or length). Site-specific criteria for achievement of establishment are defined in a plan or agreement.



An individual item or group of related items of real property valued at $5,000 or more and documented in the Real Property Inventory, and is not used to refer to a field station, which is an aggregate of "facilities".

Facility Condition Index (FCI)

The FCI is the ratio of accumulated deferred maintenance to the current replacement value of a property item. A ratio of less than 5% indicates a "good" condition, a ratio from 5% to 10% indicates "fair" condition, and a ratio greater than 10% indicates "poor" condition. FCI is an indicator of the depleted value of a bureau's constructed assets. In other words, the FCI illustrates the percentage of its assets value that a bureau would have to spend to eliminate the deferred maintenance backlog.

Fish Passage

Unobstructed pathway allowing movement in and out of habitats previously unavailable or limited due to a barrier, for use in completing life history requirements.

Fish Passage Barrier

A manmade device or influence that prevents or inhibits fish or other aquatic species from reaching historic habitats. Barrier includes, but is not restricted to, dams, culverts, inefficient fishways, water diversions, ineffective screens, and inadequate flows (Service Manual, 710 FW 1).

Fish Passage Decision Support System

Geographically referenced database of barriers preventing fish movement. Barrier location, associated species, and habitat information is available on the Internet for coordinators and partners to identify fish barriers, set priorities, and plan solutions (Service Manual, 710 FW 1).

Fish Screen

A manufactured structure or device placed within a stream, diversion or other water movement facility for the purpose of decreasing fish mortality by decreasing entrainment of juvenile and adult fish into a water supply system.

Fishery Management Plan

A planning document for the conservation of one or more fisheries. See also 'Management Plan.'

Friends Group

Friends organizations are defined by the following qualifications:

(1) Friends must have nonprofit status under Section 501(c)3 Title 26 of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) code.

(2) Friends are established with an organizational mission of supporting the purposes and objectives of a Service site or program with which they are affiliated.

(3) Friends cooperate with the Service under an approved Friends Partnership Agreement (and often a supplemental agreement) that defines and describes the scope of the partnership.

(4) Friends most commonly support a single Service site, but may support multiple Service sites, offices, or programs. They may also serve as an umbrella group for other Friends organizations, as long as they meet the qualifications above and such arrangements are formalized in a Friends Partnership Agreement. 

[Taken from Service Policy FW1, 04/04/14 FRIENDS ORGANIZATIONS]

FWMA (Fish and Wildlife Management Assistance)

A programmatic organizational branch in the Washington Office that administers funds from 1331 (Anadromous Fish Management) and most of 1332 (Fish and Wildlife Assistance) of the Fish and Wildlife Service annual budget. These funds support activities at 64 fish and wildlife management assistance offices (also sometimes known as Fishery Resources Offices, Fish and Wildlife Resource Offices, etc.) throughout the nation. Most of these activities are part of the Fisheries program, though FWMA also includes wildlife management assistance on tribal lands.



A general description of what the group seeks to accomplish and for whom (Meffe et al. 2002).


The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, which requires Federal agencies to establish standards measuring their performance and effectiveness; and to develop strategic plans describing overall goals and objectives, annual performance plans with quantifiable measures of their progress, and reports describing their success in meeting standards and measures.


An award of financial assistance, including cooperative agreements, in the form of money, or property in lieu of money, by the Federal Government to an eligible grantee. The term does not include technical assistance which provides services instead of money, or other assistance in the form of revenue sharing, loans, loan guarantees, interest subsidies, insurance, or direct appropriations. Also, the term does not include assistance, such as a fellowship or other lump sum award, which the grantee is not required to account for. Grantee means the government (or other recipient) to which a grant is awarded and which is accountable for the use of the funds provided. The grantee is the entire legal entity even if only a particular component of the entity is designated in the grant award document (adapted from 43CFR12.43 revised October 2002). A grant or cooperative agreement shall be used only when the principal purpose of a transaction is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by Federal statute. The statutory criterion for choosing between grants and cooperative agreements is that for the latter (cooperative agreements), "substantial involvement is expected between the executive agency and the State, local government, or other recipient when carrying out the activity contemplated in the agreement." (43CFR12.911 revised October 2002).


Habitat Assessment

Any one of many standard surveys to evaluate the chemical, physical, and/or biological characteristics of a specified area of land and/or water as habitat for a population, species, or community. Examples include baseline inventories, evaluations of management actions, and monitoring of changes over time.

Hatchery Propagation

Includes natural or artificial matings, fertilization of sex cells, transfer of embryos, development of offspring, and grow out of individuals of a species in a controlled environment.

Historic Properties/Sites and Collections

Historic properties/sites are those that are listed on the National Historic Registry. Historic collections pertain to historic artifacts or documents that should be preserved through appropriate protocol.


Imperiled Species

Any species listed as threatened or endangered under the authority of the Endangered Species Act, considered a candidate for listing, or its population is in a steep decline (Fisheries Program Vision for the Future).

Indirect Infrastructure

NFHS Real Property Inventory assets, other than mission critical assets, that support carrying out the mission of the field station (e.g., office buildings, storage buildings, residences, roads, fences, kiosks, signs, above-ground fuel tanks).

Information Transfers Supported

Activities conducted to provide technical information, expertise and programmatic information to partners and stakeholders to facilitate the prevention, early detection, rapid response, control and management, and education and outreach of aquatic invasive species. Includes technical assistance to other Service programs, Refuges, other Federal agencies and their lands, States, local governments, Tribes, private landowners, industries, nongovernmentalmental institutions, academic institutions and international partners. It does not include specific public awareness campaigns and State AIS management plans, or formal partnership opportunities such as the Regional Panels of the ANSTF.

In Stream

The area within the confined width and depth of a flowing watercourse at or below bank-full stage.

Intergovernmental Personnel Act

Permits the temporary assignment of personnel between Federal agencies, State and local governments, federally recognized tribes, and other eligible organizations, in order to facilitate Federal, State, local government cooperation or to develop programs of mutual concern through the short-term, temporary assignment of skilled personnel (5 U.S.C. 3371_3376).

Interjurisdictional Fisheries

Freshwater, coastal, or marine fish populations managed by two or more states, nations, or tribal governments because of their geographic distribution or migratory patterns (Fisheries Program Vision for the Future).

International Water

Waters of international interest, including waters that border or flow through two or more nations (e.g., Great Lakes, Yukon River, etc.).


The intentional or unintentional escape, release, dissemination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of human activity (Executive Order 13112).


Any nonnative species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health (Fisheries Program Vision for the Future).


Legal Mandate

An action required by law or Federal court order.

Legislative Action

An activity that is specifically identified and required to be carried out by a particular Federal law. Synonym: Legal Mandate.


To increase means of accomplishing a purpose by providing additional resources. Can include, but is not limited to, providing funds, equipment, or personnel from an outside source.

Listed Species

Any species of fish, wildlife, or plant which has been determined to be endangered or threatened under section 4 of the Endangered Species Act (50 C.F.R. 402.02).

Local Water

Waters owned by a local (e.g. county or city) government.


Management Area

An administrative unit such as an Indian reservation, wildlife refuge, or state within which specific lakes, streams or stocking sites are subsets listed in the Water Body data field. Large rivers or lakes may be a Management Area while mile markers or bays stocked are entered in the Water Body data field.

Management Plan

A broadly-used term to describe a planning document for the manipulation of natural resources in order to achieve societal goals. Can be specific to a species, population, community, watershed, ecosystem, or other location, or for activities including recovery, restoration, control, or use. Generally describes the historic and current resource characteristics or functions and outlines goals and objectives to establish or maintain those characteristics or functions at a desired condition. It further describes specific actions and timetables by the participants to achieve those goals and a format to report progress towards this accomplishment.

Marine Mammal

Any mammal which (A) is morphologically adapted to the marine environment (including sea otters and members of the orders Sirenia, Pinnipedia and Cetacea), or (B) primarily inhabits the marine environment (such as the polar bear) (16 U.S.C. 1362).

Mission Critical Asset

Any asset that is critical to completing the mission of the NFHS station. Currently, this is limited to mission critical water management assets at each station (wells, pumps, raceways, electrical and alarm systems, etc.).

Mission Critical Water Management Asset

Those water related real property inventory items located on a NFHS field station essential to the mission of that facility directly impacting the production, holding, rearing, or distribution of aquatic species.


Activities to compensate for the loss of a recreational fishery and\or non-recreational species of fish and other aquatic organisms due to adverse and persistent effects on target populations resulting from the modification of native habitat by Federal water development projects that replace such habitat with reservoir and/or tailrace habitat. Target species are those whose performance and contributions have been reduced to suboptimal levels, or can no longer survive in the modified habitat and must be replaced with native or nonnative species adapted to the new habitat conditions associated with the water development project.

Mitigation Plan

A written document describing activities compensating for the impact (usually reductions in natural fish production caused by Federal water resource development projects) by replacing or providing substitute resources or environments.

Mitigation Production Target

A production target as identified in a mitigation plan. The planned number/pounds of fish to be distributed from hatchery.


Native Species

Any species within historic range, the area occupied at the time of European colonization of North America (Fisheries Program Vision for the Future).

New Animal Drug Application (NADAs)

The formal application and accompanying technical data sections submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to demonstrate that a drug (not yet approved) is safe and effective for use on animal(s) and disease(s) indicated on the label. To be approved by FDA, the technical sections must demonstrate that the drug is safe to the animal(s)indicated on the label, safe to humans who may eat the animal(s) treated with the drug (in the case of food animals), safe to the environment as a result of its being manufactured and used, and that the drug is effective in treating or preventing the conditions indicated on the label.

NFHS Stations

National Fish Hatchery System stations. Includes fish hatcheries, fish technology centers, fish health centers and historic fish hatcheries that are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

No Cost Recovery

A situation whereby the Fisheries Program delivers a good or service without receiving payment in return.

Non-Core Request Information

All information associated with a request record that is not core request information. In other words, information that is not directly related to the distribution of fish/egg such as the associated Accomplishments Project under which the request falls.

Non-indigenous Species

Any species or other viable biological material that enters an ecosystem beyond its historic range, including any such organism transferred from one country into another (16 U.S.C. 4702). Synonyms: non-native, introduced, exotic, transplanted, alien.

Non-Service Federal Water

Waters owned by the Federal Government other than the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.



A specific statement of what the group intends to accomplish, stated in ways that can be measured and monitored. Several objectives may be written to address each goal (Meffe et al. 2002).

Off Target

The stocking occurred one mile or more from the Distribution Site.

Other Justification

A Special Conservation activity which is authorized but not specifically required by specific legislative, treaty, or court order authorization. This includes, but is not limited to, Memorandum of Understanding, Memorandum of Agreement, and Cooperative Agreement.

Outreach and Education Events

A time-specific gathering of Fisheries Program staff and an audience of selected individuals, organizations, or the general public for the purpose of providing the audience with information on aquatic resource conservation, recreational fishing, and/or the functions of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.



Any individual, organization, or agency working with another to meet common objectives by contributing capital towards shared activities. "Capital" includes funds, people, equipment, land/property access, and authority.

Petitioned Species

Species that have been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act


An integrated system that includes all activities leading to the development and implementation of goals, objectives, operational strategies, and progress evaluation (adapted from Crowe, D.M. 1987).


A discrete group of individuals of a single species, subspecies, or lesser taxon that is defined by its reproductive isolation, and/or geographical distribution (e.g., management unit). Captive fish and their progeny held in captivity do not constitute a discrete population.

Population Assessment

A broad category of biological surveys conducted to determine population characteristics of a species. Examples include baseline inventories, evaluations of management actions, and monitoring of changes over time of population parameters (e.g., abundance, distribution, genetics, sex ratios, recruitment, and growth rate).

Prey Species Propagation

Producing and stocking an aquatic species to serve as a prey base for an endangered mammal, bird, or fish.

Private Water

Waters owned by private citizens.


A particular activity (e.g., a population assessment) or interrelated group of activities to implement a tactic and contribute towards meeting a planned objective. Interrelated activities are those components essential to completing a project from start to finish (including measuring and reporting the results of the work to stakeholders). A planned objective is one found in the strategic plan (adapted from Meffe et al. 2002). See Meffe et al. (2002) for more information and examples of writing a project. In FIS, each record in the FONS and Accomplishments modules should be written as a project, where results are measured and recorded on the Activities page.

Proposed Species

Any species of fish, wildlife, or plant that is proposed in the Federal Register to be listed under section 4 of the Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 402.02).

Public Use Asset

Any public use asset under maintenance codes identified below as documented in the Real Property Inventory and not slated for disposal or demolition: 101 Office Buildings; 102 Visitor Centers; 320 Public Use Paved Roads; 322 Paved Parking Areas; 323 Other Parking Areas; 324 Public Use Gravel Roads; 328 Public Use (Foot) Trails / Boardwalks; 329 Service Owned Vehicle Bridges; 556 Signs; 557 Historical Structures; 558 Boat Launching Ramps; 559 Beaches.



A process for changing the threatened or endangered status of a listed species, pursuant to 50 C.F.R. 424.11.


Improvement in the status of listed species to the point at which listing is no longer appropriate under the criteria set out in section 4(a)(1) of the Endangered Species Act (50 C.F.R. 402.02).

Recovery Plan

A planning document pursuant to the Endangered Species Act for the conservation and survival of Federally listed species (16 U.S.C. 1533(f)).

Recovery Plan Task

A specific recovery action, as outlined within the recovery strategy of a Recovery Plan to meet recovery goals and objectives. Recovery Plan Tasks are listed in the Implementation Schedule of Recovery Plans. This term is used in the 1990 ES Recovery Plan Guidance, however, a revised draft version of this document replaces the term "task" with "action" (change expected to be in place by 2004).

Recovery Plan Production Task

Any recovery plan task that specifies hatchery production activities as part of the recovery strategy for that species.


An activity which provides or enhances public opportunities such as fishing, hunting, and wildlife watching.

Re Establishment Habitat

The manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a site with the goal of returning natural/historic functions to former habitat. Reestablishment results in rebuilding former habitat and results in a gain in habitat size (e.g., length, area, or volume). Site-specific criteria for achievement of re-establishment are defined in a plan or agreement.


Isolated areas or facilities in which imperiled wild or captive produced organisms can be held in protection, preferably for short periods of time but possibly long-term.

Rehabilitation (Habitat)

The manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a site with the goal of repairing natural/historic functions of degraded habitats. Rehabilitation results in a gain in habitat function but does not result in a gain in habitat size (e.g., length, area, or volume). Site-specific criteria for achievement of rehabilitation are defined in a plan or agreement.


An activity in which costs are partially or fully reimbursed to the receiving Federal or nonfederal entity.

Replacement Value

The costs to substitute or exchange an existing asset, asset component, or item of equipment for another having the capacity to perform the same function. Also known as "Replacement Costs."


A requisition for any fish or eggs to be transferred or released to or from any Service facility in the National Fish Hatchery System.


An activity that directly or indirectly supports gathering, analyzing, and disseminating scientific information.

Restoration (Habitat)

The manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a site with the goal of returning natural/historic functions to a former or degraded habitat. Site-specific criteria for achievement of restoration are defined in a plan or agreement. Habitat restoration is divided into re-establishment and rehabilitation.

Restoration Population

The process of returning the quantity and/or quality of one or more depleted or extirpated populations to some previous condition, often a baseline established to meet goals and objectives in a plan or agreement.


A landscape position _ lands contiguous to perennial or intermittent streams, channels and rivers. Riparian areas may include upland, wetland, and riparian plant communities (FWS FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan).


Areas within the active channel of a river or stream.


Self Sustaining

Capable of maintaining itself independently (Webster's New World Dictionary, Third College Edition, s.v. "Self_sustaining"; Fisheries Program Vision for the Future). In general, a population may be considered self-sustaining if no augmentation is required by hatchery or out-of-basin fish; the genetic component is sufficient and habitat requirements are met without further human intervention.

Service Water

Waters owned by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Species of Management Concern

Any species subject to management by the Department due to statutory or programmatic responsibility.

Sport Fish

Any species targeted by anglers for recreation


Species in the wild whose numbers have remained relatively constant and whose threats are relatively constant. Stable does not mean secure.


Any agency, group, or individual that can place a claim on the agency's attention, resources or outputs, or who sees themselves as affected by agency actions or who can affect the agency's future (Organization of Wildlife Planners; Developing Comprehensive Management Systems for Wildlife Agencies Seminar; October 23_27, 1995; Stowe, Vermont).

State Water

Waters owned by a State.

Status Review

A process pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 1533(b) as a basis for determination of endangered and threatened species.

Status Survey

Activities funded or conducted by one of the Services or others to study the status of a species (Petition Management Handbook, July 1996, USFWS and NMFS Official Guidelines).

Statutory Mitigation

Used only for the Mitigation Classification Category, an activity that is mandated under one or more specific Federal authorities, such as legislative acts, treaties, or court orders. If this modifier is chosen, further describe it by selecting Legislative, Treaty, or the Court Order Modifier.


The practice of taking fish, wildlife or other wild resources for one's sustenance _ for food, shelter or other personal or family needs.



An operational approach chosen to overcome a stated problem, also sometimes referred to as "strategy" (Crowe 1987; Meffe et al. 2002).


An assigned piece of work often to be finished within a certain time (adapted from Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.


The stocking occurred within one mile of the Distribution Site.

Target Life Stage

The life stage defined in a management plan for which management actions are directed to most benefit the species.

Technical Assistance

Expertise, information, or other help provided by the Service upon request by a partner or stakeholder to facilitate the development, enhancement, and management of fish and wildlife resources (e.g. direct onsite support, information transfer, and baseline inventories) (adapted from FWS FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan and FWS Native American Policy). Record all activities (including communications) related to one issue or project as one request for technical assistance fulfilled. Technical assistance is not consultation. In the most general terms, consultation is initiated by the Service and technical assistance is initiated by a partner or stakeholder.

Technical Section

Part of the New Animal Drug Application package that includes corroborative and pivotal data from studies conducted at both Service and other Federal State, Tribal, and private facilities using drugs under Service INAD's.

(New) Techniques and Culture Technology Tools

Tasks and activities associated with new (i.e. never before developed) techniques and advances in applied fisheries science and fish culture.

Threatened Species

Any species listed under the Endangered Species Act that is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range (50 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.).

Total Repair Costs

The cost to conduct needed work to restore a damaged, broken, or worn-out asset, asset component, or item of equipment to normal operating condition.

Tribal Consultation

”Consultation is a process to create effective collaboration with Indian tribes and to inform Federal decision-makers.  Consultation is built upon government-to-government exchange of information and promotes enhanced communication that emphasizes trust, respect and shared responsibility.  Communications will be open and transparent without compromising the rights of Indian tribes or the government-to-government consultation process.”  - S.O. 3317 – Department of the Interior Policy on Consultation with Indian Tribes

 Consultation could be legally mandated or could be a voluntary effort by the Service or a tribe to gain perspective on an issue or action affecting the tribe.  In most cases, consultation occurs when the Service initiates an action, such as a proposed regulation, policy (new or amendment to an existing policy) or management activity, e.g. designation of critical habitat, rulemaking, or listing species (reference DOI Policy on Consultation with Indian Tribes definition 512 DM 4, “Departmental Actions with Tribal Implications.”)  However, in some cases, the action may be something that a tribe is interested in doing, and they wish to consult with us.  This action becomes the subject of the consultation.  Two types of consultation are recognized and should be reported. These are: 1) an “invitation to consult” and 2) a “consultation event.”  Regardless of which party initiates the request for consultation, the request is considered an “invitation to consult” on the “subject.” The “consultation event” is defined as a two-way dialogue between the Service and a Tribe. The format of this dialogue may be a meeting, telephone call, or correspondence and occurs on a specific date.  Subsequent consultations on different dates with the same Tribe and on the same subject of an invitation may be recorded as multiple, separate consultations.  All consultations must comply with current Federal Native American policies, including Secretarial Order Nos. 3317, 3206, 3317, and Executive Order 13175

Tribal Plan

 A Plan may be described as "Tribal" if the plan provides benefits to tribal resources or people or is implemented in cooperation and/or collaboration with a tribal agency. 

Tribal Water

Waters held by the United States in trust for a tribe or an individual Indian; or waters legally owned in fee simple by a tribe or an individual Indian that are subject to Federal restrictions against alienation or encumbrance. Also, waters for which a tribe or an individual Indian retained specific right-of-way or uses as defined by treaty or other binding Federal agreement (including Alaska Native Corporation lands).

Tribal Trust Responsibility

The federal Indian trust responsibility is a legal obligation under which the United States “has charged itself with moral obligations of the highest responsibility and trust” toward Indian tribes (Seminole Nation v. United States, 1942). This obligation was first discussed by Chief Justice John Marshall in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). Over the years, the trust doctrine has been at the center of numerous other Supreme Court cases, thus making it one of the most important principles of federal Indian law.

 The federal Indian trust responsibility is also a legally enforceable fiduciary obligation on the part of the United States to protect tribal treaty rights, lands, assets, and resources, as well as a duty to carry out the mandates of federal law with respect to American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and villages. In several cases discussing the trust responsibility, the Supreme Court has used language suggesting that it entails legal duties, moral obligations, and the fulfillment of understandings and expectations that have arisen over the entire course of the relationship between the United States and the federally recognized tribes. Source: Bureau of Indian Affairs.


A federally recognized tribe is an American Indian or Alaska Native tribal entity that is recognized as having a government-to-government relationship with the United States, with the responsibilities, powers, limitations, and obligations attached to that designation and is eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

 Furthermore, federally recognized tribes are recognized as possessing certain inherent rights of self-government (i.e., tribal sovereignty) and are entitled to receive certain federal benefits, services, and protections because of their special relationship with the United States.  At present, there are 567 federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and villages.



Land or an area of land lying above the level where water flows or where flooding occurs (FWS FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan).



A standard eight digit USGS cataloging unit representing part or all of a surface drainage basin, a combination of drainage basins, or a distinct hydrologic feature. The USGS divides the United States into 2150 cataloging units, which are the fourth level of classification in the USGS Hydrologic Unit system. For more information, see Synonym: DOI Watershed Unit.

Watershed Plan

A planning document for the restoration and/or management of any of the USGS cataloging units or other appropriate scale. Generally describes the historic and current characteristics of the watershed and outlines goals, objectives, and partner roles to maintain or reestablish its function to a state of being at, or somewhere between, its historic state and current functional state.


Lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. For purposes of this classification, wetlands must have one or more of the following three attributes: (1) at least periodically the land supports predominantly hydrophytes; (2) the substrate is predominantly undrained hydric soils; and (3) the substrate is non-soil and is saturated with water or covered by shallow water at some time during the growing season of each year (Cowardin et al. 1979). By definition wetlands include areas meeting specific criteria included in the 1987 Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual, as well as in the USDA-NRCS's National Food Security Act Manual (FWS FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan,

Wild Fish Health Survey

A formalized national partnership of Service, State and Tribal resource agencies to document the national distribution of fish pathogens, including viruses, in free ranging fish. Its use allows for management decisions based on greater levels of science based information and is publicly available on the web.

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