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This is draft content showing examples of concepts 

Kinds of catalog records

User feedback indicated that there are several different kinds of things they expect to see in the catalog to support integrated modeling and model discovery.

Model

a representation of a system via physics, mathematics, or empirical data, that can be used to approximate the system in question and used to conduct research or apply research to a management application

Example: StreamMetabolizer, TRIGRS

Framework

a modeling system composed of multiple component models or modules

Example: COAWST, HayWired, National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project 

Testbed

Infrastructure that allows you to understand model and data integration and performance

Example: iLamb: https://www.ilamb.org/

Tool

software or web application that implements a model algorithm; pre-processing or post-processing application that works with model input or output

Example: INHABIT

Model Types

User feedback indicated that it would be useful to know what "type" of modeling (statistical, process-based) is associated with the model.

WHY: The user may only want to see models that are based on theoretical understanding of the modeled processes. OR, the user may be interested in newer data-driven, machine-learning techniques in modeling. 

Feedback from modelers indicate that

  • Model type definitions are overlapping and discipline-specific.
  • Models in the catalog should be allowed multiple designations. 
  • Type definitions should be listed somewhere. 
  • We should keep the list as a "living, evolving" list of model types because we'll probably keep hearing about new types as time goes on.

Model types heard in our working group discussions

Model types we heard multiple times are listed below. We are working on the best way, probably hierarchical, to list these for use.

Note that terminology varies from discipline to discipline.

Analytical Analytical models are mathematical models that have a closed form solution, i.e. the solution to the equations used to describe changes in a system can be expressed as a mathematical analytic function. (ref)
ConceptualA conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
Data-driven Data-driven usually refers to Machine Learning (although not exclusively), i.e. using a formal set of observations in order to build a representation of a population of interest (usually through automated methods). (ref)
Deterministic  the output of the model is fully determined by the parameter values and the initial conditions (set of inputs)
Empiricalrefers to any kind of computer modeling based on empirical/experimental observations rather than on mathematically describable relationships of the system modeled; model based on observations. https://w3id.org/okn/o/sdm#EmpiricalModel
GeospatialThe analytical procedures that simulate real-world conditions within a GIS using the spatial relationships of geographic features. (ref)
Mathematical A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language. (ref)
Mechanisticassumes that a complex system can be understood by examining the workings of its individual parts and the manner in which they are coupled. Mechanistic models typically have a tangible, physical aspect, in that system components are real, solid and visible
Numerical Numerical models are mathematical models that use some sort of numerical time-stepping procedure to obtain the models behavior over time. (ref)
Physics-basedPhysics-based modeling implies that object motions are governed by the laws of physics. 
Process-basedModels that are based on a theoretical understanding of the relevant processes.
StatisticalA statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data (and similar data from a larger population). (ref)
Stochasticalso called a probabilistic model, incorporates random variables and probability distributions into the model of an event or phenomenon. While a deterministic model gives a single possible outcome for an event, a probabilistic model gives a probability distribution as a solution

From Steyer, Gulf of Mexico Modeling Community of Practice form:

The following are a few definitions for clarification in filling out the form (refer to book Ecosystem Modeling in Theory and Practice by C. Hall and J. Day (ISBN 0-87081-216-5, originally 1977 by John Wiley and Sons, reprint 1990 by University Press of Colorado):

(1) Deterministic Model: the output of the model is fully determined by the parameter values and the initial conditions (set of inputs);

(2) Stochastic Model: also called a probabilistic model, incorporates random variables and probability distributions into the model of an event or phenomenon. While a deterministic model gives a single possible outcome for an event, a probabilistic model gives a probability distribution as a solution;

(3) Mechanistic Model: assumes that a complex system can be understood by examining the workings of its individual parts and the manner in which they are coupled. Mechanistic models typically have a tangible, physical aspect, in that system components are real, solid and visible;

(4) Empirical Model: refers to any kind of computer modeling based on empirical/experimental observations rather than on mathematically describable relationships of the system modeled; and

(5) Conceptual Model: A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.

More model types

The model catalog team has heard about the following models that are important to USGS work. These may or may not be in the initial focus for FY20 - more detail below.

  1. 3-D models (not included in FY20)
  2. Analog model (physical model) (not included in FY20) - a model in a physical laboratory for a process such as sediment transport or faulting, (flumes, tanks, constructed wetlands)
    1. Note - physical model is not the same as physics-based model. Very obvious to anyone who has worked with one or the other, but may not be to those who haven't. 
  3. Age model (age-depth) (not included in FY20) - a chart showing the chronostratigraphic relationship of different depositional sequences and associated formations within a study area. https://chrono.qub.ac.uk/blaauw/bacon.html
  4. Aerosol model
  5. Basin subsidence / exhumation model (not included in FY20)
  6. Bioclimatic envelope
  7. Carbon and GHG flux model
  8. Climate model - climate change projection
  9. Coastal marsh migration model
    Compiled code that implements a model - this may be included. 
  10. Conceptual model -  
  11. Coupled socio-ecological models
  12. Data model (not included in FY20) - an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities. It would be really interesting to have a catalog of these, but that is not this project. 
  13. Decision model -  
  14. Diffusion model (geochronology)
  15. Economic model -  
  16. EUR (Estimated Ultimate Recovery) model (not included in FY20)
  17. Evacuation model
  18. Fault model
  19. Fire/disturbance/recovery
  20. Flow model
  21. Geologic model - https://ngmdb.usgs.gov/www-nadm/ (not included in FY20)
  22. GIS model
  23. Hydrodynamic model
  24. Machine learning model (not included in FY20) - methods or types of algorithms in models are being evaluated as a description for "named" models 
  25. Model organism (not included in FY20) - Model organisms in biological experiments might also be thought of by some as something to include. 
  26. Ocean model
  27. Pheno-climatic model
  28. Post-fire debris-flow model
  29. Risk model
  30. Sediment transport model
  31. Sequence Stratigraphic model / Geological Model  (not included in FY20)
  32. Spatial/Cartographic model
  33. Species Distribution
  34. Susceptibility model (landslides)
  35. Tectonics model
  36. Thermal history (not included in FY20) (HeFTy, QTQt)
  37. Thermodynamic model (not included in FY20) (http://melts.ofm-research.org)
  38. Urbanization model
  39. Vegetation succession
  40. Water quality
  41. “Tools” – models and tools are often lumped together, but how should the distinction be drawn between models, tools, software? 
  42. And more.... 


Definitions of model 

We also need to find a general definition for "model" that will be optimally palatable / least offensive. 

Selection contributed by working group participants

  1. Something that represents our best understanding through equations or reproducible computations. 
  2. A mathematical approach to quantify some phenomenon in the world for which we cannot directly gather complete data across all locations and times needed. 
  3. Model can be considered as a representation of a system via physics, mathematics, empirical, that can be used to approximate a system in question and used to conduct research or apply research to a management application. 

From other sites 

  1. Models, in Space Weather, are mathematical descriptions of the conditions of the space environment, based on statistical analysis of past and current observations of the space environment. (link) 

 

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