USGS Thesaurus (and Related Vocabularies)

The USGS Thesaurus is a broad, shallow formal thesaurus intended to help people outside USGS find scientific information resources without having to know the organizational structure of USGS itself.

Controlled Vocabularies Expressed as RDF-XML using SKOS:

Natural Sciences Vocabularies & Ontologies

Physical Sciences Vocabularies & Ontologies


  1. Raskin, R. G. & Pan, M. J. (2005) Knowledge Representation in the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET). Computers & Geosciences 31, 1119-1125.
  2. Cox, S. J. D. & Richard, S. M. (2005) A formal model for the geologic time scale and global stratotype section and point, compatible with geospatial information transfer standards. Geosphere 1(3), 119-137.
  3. Perrin, M. & Mastella, L. S., (2011) Morel, O. & Lorenzatti, A. Geological Time Formalization: an improved formal model for describing time successions and their correlation. Earth Science Informatics 4(2), 81-96.
  4. Tripathi, A. & Babaie, H. A. (2008) Developing a modular hydrogeology ontology by extending the SWEET upper-level ontologies. Computers & Geosciences 34, 1022-1033.
  5. Fauziati, S. & Watanabe, K. (2010) Ontology of Volcano System and Volcanic Hazards Assessment. International Journal of Geoinformatics 6(4), 49-62.
  6. Zhong, J., Aydina, A., & McGuinness, D. (2009) Ontology of Fractures. Journal of Structural Geology 31, 251-259.