Total Publications: 513
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Confusion about the link between human-induced climate change and extreme weather events is fairly common. There is a communication problem that has resulted in this confusion through erroneous messages or unclear linkages between humans and extremem weather events, and a need for more effective communication of what current scientific findings indicate for specific weather events.
Gateway communities to National Parks generate a considerable amount of economic activity due to visitor spending. The appeal of recreational use on these public lands draws in visitors from around the world. FORT scientists used economic effects analysis to measure how spending by National Park Service visitor’s cycles through local gateway economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. The report concludes by presenting estimates of NPS visitor spending in 2013 and resulting economic effects at the local, state, regional, and national levels.
This report shares the spending effects of visitors to National Parks in 2018. Additional Interactive tools are created to explore spending effects by state economies and individual park economies.
In an interview with social marketing researcher, Dr. Diogo Verissimo, we find out the basics of social marketing, how it can be used for conservation, and how it can overcome the challenge of changing human behavior.
This article in the Texas Lawyer examines scholarly research on stereotypical "female" traits, and which ones work for and against a female negotiator, like the female attorney example used here.
This paper examines the planning and implementation of the national visitor planning model's initial phases in three specific areas in the Aysen region, and discusses important strengths and weaknesses of the plan.
This article discusses the impressive contributions that citizen scientists have made to monarch conservation research.
Climate change policies currently pay disproportionately greater attention to the mitigation of climate change through emission reductions strategies than to adaptation measures. Realizing that the world is already committed to some global warming, policy makers are beginning to turn their attention to the challenge of preparing society to adapt to the unfolding impacts at the local level.
Where high-traffic roads are situated near wildlife habit, there are significant safety and conservation concerns. Improvements to these areas depend on the quality of Wildlife-vehicle collision data collection.
Answers to these and related questions require conceptual frameworks that account for the vulnerability of coupled human–environment systems with diverse and complex linkages. Various expert communities have made considerable progress in pointing the way toward the design of these frameworks (10, 11). These advances are briefly reviewed here and, drawing on them, we present a conceptual framework of vulnerability developed by the Research and Assessment Systems for Sustainability Program ( that produced the set of works in this Special Feature of PNAS.
This paper is a work-in-progress account of ideas and propositions about resilience in social-ecological systems. It articulates our understanding of how these complex systems change and what determines their ability to absorb disturbances in either their ecological or their social domains. We call them “propositions” because, although they are useful in helping us understand and compare different social-ecological systems, they are not sufficiently well defined to be considered formal hypotheses.
Human dimension information is given a framework and guidelines for use in forest planning. The framework considers the biological, physical, and human pieces of sustainable ecosystems as a guide for social assessment.
This article examines 55 scholarly articles across four age groups to identify what drives the skewed representation in this field.
Water resources management and the “changing water paradigm” has many components, including a shift away from sole, or even primary, reliance on finding new sources of supply to address perceived new demands, a growing emphasis on incorporating ecological values into water policy, a re-emphasis on meeting basic human needs for water services, and a conscious breaking of the ties between economic growth and water use. This paper summarizes the components of this ongoing shift and looks at the new paths being explored. It evaluates the major reasons for the change in approach and discusses the applicability of these new concepts in different parts of the world.
Worldwide, there are approximately 16,000 remote webcams in nature providing users with an opportunity to view wildlife without charge. In order to understand the monetary value of viewing these wildlife cameras, we examine variations in the vewers' oportunity cost of time to estimate consumer surplus.
16,000 natural resource remote web cameras provide users around the world with an opportunity to view wildlife. The web cameras are free to view, so we are left with evaluating viewer's opportunity cost of time to estimate the consumer surplus.
In this article, the focus is on middle school students given different survey methods to complete, and results show a difference in how the students responded.
This study tested a model for communication by looking at the effects of brochures on 368 wilderness users.
This book assesses the Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP) and identifies lessons learned for governance and policy through this new and innovative approach to collaborative forest management.
This document provides service-wide policy, guidance, and direction to all parks that are designing and implementing comprehensive natural resource inventory and monitoring (I&M) programs.
The effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the frequency of extreme hydrologic events in the Western United States (WUS) for the 10-year period of 2040–2049 are examined using dynamically downscaled regional climate change signals.
The future use of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands is an important agricultural policy issue. To examine the effects of factors that influence landowners' post-contract use of CRP lands, a survey of Texas High Plains CRP contract holders was conducted in 1992. This study analyzes the results of the survey using a qualitative choice model. It was found that the presence of a livestock enterprise in the current contract holder's operation increases the probability of these acres remaining in the established cover. Contract holders who value the commodity base have an increased probability of returning their acres to crop production.
Few studies have investigated the wildlife-related experience of urban African-American and Latino adolescents. Using a grounded theory research approach, we identified four general conditions (i.e., demographic characteristics, socialization, place of residence, wildlife encounters) that were important in shaping four general processes (i.e., connecting with wildlife, selective engagement with wildlife, tolerating wildlife, wildlife disconnect) that describe the differing wildlife experiences of these adolescents.
This paper revisits the issue of evaluation in natural resource management and recasts it in light of complex adaptive systems thinking. An evaluative framework for adaptive co-management is developed which directs attention toward three broad components: ecosystem conditions, livelihood outcomes and process and institutional conditions.
This article discusses the problem of scavenging birds ingesting lead when eating carcasses of animals killed with lead-containing ammunition.
This article reviews the most recent (as of May 2016) findings about recreation ecology in order to inform visitor use management and policy.
This article describes two field experiments that tested what messaging works best in asking hotel guests to reuse their towels as a part of an environmental conservation program.
This paper describes the evolution of a general group decision making or negotiation support procedure for water resources planning at a strategic level (such as regional development planning), based on principles of multicriteria decision analysis.
This paper presents results from a study examining assumptions around experience-based setting management of outdoor recreation areas.
The editors of A Thinking Person's Guide to America's National Parks have created a complete set of free teaching materials for a course titled "Introduction to America's National Park System: Managing the Natural and Cultural Heritage of a Changing Nation." This 24-lesson course uses the book as the core text, and each lesson includes research questions that students explore via the National Park Service's website. The course covers the full variety of resources in America's national parks—and the challenges of managing them.
Under the general rubric of sustainability, societies are now struggling with the reconciliation of the demands of human systems and the health and continuation of the biosphere that supports them. Fundamental to coping with this challenge is the creation of decision-making and management approaches that possess an ability to operate in the face of pervasive risk and uncertainty.
Burton explores options for domestic and international policy change regarding adaptation, disaster planning, and disaster relief based on the pervasive impacts weather and climate have on the economy and people's livelihood.
As climate and water crises become more prevalent, individuals are adjusting their diets in an effort to mitigate the impacts and reduce the frequency of these crises. Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future evaluated 140 countries, establishing nine diets from each that accounted for variations in income, GDP, food availability and communications about certain types of diets, to understand how these small-scale changes being made by individuals may impact, or are being impacted by, widespread climate and water crises.
Planned adaptation to climate change denotes actions undertaken to reduce the risks and capitalize on the opportunities associated with global climate change. This paper summarizes current thinking about planned adaptation. It starts with an explanation of key adaptation concepts, a description of the diversity of adaptation contexts, and a discussion of key prerequisites for effective adaptation. On the basis of this introduction, major approaches to climate impact and adaptation assessment and their evolution are reviewed. Finally, principles for adaptation assessment are derived from decision-analytical considerations and from the experience with past adaptation assessments.
We describe the nature of recent (50 year) rainfall variability in the summer rainfall zone, South Africa, and how variability is recognised and responded to on the ground by farmers. Using daily rainfall data and self-organising mapping (SOM) we identify 12 internally homogeneous rainfall regions displaying differing parameters of precipitation change.
The dominant research tradition on adaptation to environmental change primarily takes an actor-centered view, focusing on the agency of social actors to respond to specific environmental stimuli and emphasizing the reduction of vulnerabilities. The resilience approach is systems orientated, takes a more dynamic view, and sees adaptive capacity as a core feature of resilient social-ecological systems. We argue that resilience provides a useful framework to analyze adaptation processes and to identify appropriate policy responses. We distinguish between incremental adjustments and transformative action and demonstrate that the sources of resilience for taking adaptive action are common across scales.
This paper reviews the concept of adaptation of human communities to global changes, especially climate change, in the context of adaptive capacity and vulnerability. It focuses on scholarship that contributes to practical implementation of adaptations at the community scale.
Climate change is expected to produce reductions in water availability in England, potentially necessitating adaptive action by the water industry to maintain supplies. As part of Ofwat's fifth Periodic Review (PR09), water companies recently released their draft Water Resources Management Plans, setting out how each company intends to maintain the balance between the supply and demand for water over the next 25 years, following Environment Agency guidelines. This paper reviews these plans to determine company estimates of the impact of climate change on water supply relative to other resource pressures. The approaches adopted for incorporating the impact in the plans and the proposed management solutions are also identified.
Examples from Sweden and Canada are used in this publication to understand the development of adaptive co-management systems, showing how local groups self-organize and adapt to create change in social networks that share information and shape change across institutions, organizations, and individuals.
We explore the social dimension that enables adaptive ecosystem-based management. The review concentrates on experiences of adaptive governance of social-ecological systems during periods of abrupt change (crisis) and investigates social sources of renewal and reorganization.
It is suggested that landscapes and seascapes are best understood as complex social-ecological systems, and as such adaptive governance is the most suitable approach for ecosystem management. This publication examines three different adaptive governance initiatives and compares them with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use.
This paper proposes an 'adaptive impact management' (AIM) approach to integrating ecological and human dimensions into wildlife management.
Participation by Alaska Native tribes, communities, and individuals in conservation projects on public lands is often inadequate. Increasing the quantity and effectiveness of Native participation in conservation should be of paramount importance to federal agencies in Alaska.
It would seem that the ecotourism that overwintering of butterflies in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico brings to the area would improve the economy and lives of local communities, however, this article presents the realities of ecotourism in and around this reserve and suggests a different model to even the playing field and create sustainable ecotourism.
Considering that permanently protected areas have been proven to increase nearby property values, this study investigated whether the same is true for National Wildlife Refuges.
This news release from the United States Department of Agriculture announces the 2011 America's Great Outdoors Progress Report.
This study investigated the influence of economic, personal, and attitudinal factors on the intended conservation effort of a sample of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contract holders after their contracts have expired. Economic factors were found to dominate the decision about future conservation effort. Attitudes towards conservation were found to have no significant influence on the decision.
This article explores the relationship between involvement and place attachment for hikers on the Appalachian Trail, boaters on the South Fork of California's American River, and anglers in New England.
The Potential for Conflict Index (PCI) was developed to facilitate understanding and applicability of leisure, recreation, and human dimensions findings to managerial concerns.
This paper presents a brief conceptual overview of inventory and monitoring and the role of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program in national assessments.
Ongoing drought in the Colorado River Basin, unprecedented urban growth in the watershed, and numerical model simulations showing higher temperatures and lower precipitation totals in the future have all combined to heighten interest in drought in this region. In this investigation, we use principal components analysis (PCA) to independently assess the influence of various teleconnections on Basin-wide and sub-regional winter season Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) and precipitation variations in the Basin.
Biodiversity conservation succeeds only if it has public support, yet many conservation scientists suggest that such support is waning and some fear that the public has lost interest in conservation. Moreover, the public’s limited interest in the environment overall might be overwhelmed by concern over a single issue – that of climate change. To understand whether these views are justified, we evaluated public interest in different conservation- related terms by examining internet search trends. We found that contrary to commonly held opinions, public interest in conservation is in fact rising, and that it is tightly and positively correlated with interest in climate change, indicating that the public pays attention to both topics at the same time.
This document, from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, is a summary of the book, "Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems", which reviews the different social and ecological factors that can enhance resilience of social-ecological systems.
Conservation planning is increasing its use of social science research and techniques to better understand the feasibility and scope of different conservation actions and landholder motivations to engage in conservation actions. Most conservation planners are trained biologists and ecologists, and this article explores a few recommendations that may assist with integrating social science research techniques into the theory and practice of conservation planning.
Online surveying is an efficient and inexpensive data-collection method. This article provides guidelines for alleviating or avoiding the criticisms and shortfalls of online surveying.
This publication examines the population trends and movement of 26 species of hawk moths in northeastern United States from studies spanning over 100 years.
Understanding of the magnitude of the adaptation challenge at a global scale is incomplete and constrained by a limited understanding of if and how adaptation is taking place. Here we develop and apply a methodology to track and characterize adaptation action; we apply these methods to the peer-reviewed, English-language literature.
Increased demand for energy is driving rapid development of oil and gas, uranium, geothermal, wind, and solar sources of energy throughout the Western United States. Much of the energy development is occurring on public lands, which represents about 40 percent of Colorado and New Mexico.
Communities, people, and human artifacts can be represented in spatial information systems so that the effects of wildfire can be anticipated. This chapter concentrates on pertinent social and economic components of a geographic system for Colorado.
A collection of publications examining key human wildlife conflicts and how public land managers are sustaining the safety and future for both humans and wildlife.
Walkable access to parks, sufficient park acreage, and investments in park and recreation resources are 3 indicators of quality city park systems. This study examines the collective effects of these indicators, and regression analyses indicated that the composite park quality score was significantly related to both physical activity levels and physical health across a sample of 59 cities.
Projections of future climate change are plagued with uncertainties, causing difficulties for planners making decisions on adaptation measures. This paper presents an assessment framework that allows the identification of adaptation strategies that are robust (i.e. insensitive) to climate change uncertainties. The framework is applied to a case study of water resources management in the east of England, more specifically to the Anglian Water Services’ 25 year Water Resource Plan (WRP).
In this review, we highlight new insights into the conceptualization of the vulnerability of social-environmental systems and identify critical points of convergence of what otherwise might be characterized as disparate fields of research. We argue that a diversity of approaches to studying vulnerability is necessary in order to address the full complexity of the concept and that the approaches are in large part complementary.
Targeting conservation actions efficiently requires information on vulnerability of and threats to conservation targets, but such information is rarely included in conservation plans. In the U.S., recently updated State Wildlife Action Plans identify Conservation Opportunity Areas (COAs) selected by each state as priority areas for future action to conserve wildlife and habitats.
This research from the Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University addresses the beliefs, attitudes, and values of the public toward biodiversity and related issues.
In arid countries worldwide, social conflicts between irrigation-based human development and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems are widespread and attract many public debates. This research focuses on the analysis of water and agricultural policies aimed at conserving groundwater resources and maintaining rural livelihoods in a basin in Spain's central arid region.
This report from the Alliance for Biking & Walking provides a comprehensive update on biking and walking in 2016 in the United States.
This article from 2009 discusses not only evidence that lead ammunition causes mortality in wild birds, but also the societal transitions needed to confront this problem in the face of controversy and debates over nontoxic shot requirements and the use of lead sinkers and jig heads for sport-fishing.
It is concluded that an environment devoid of Nature may act as a "discord", i.e., have a negative effect.
This quarterly journal communicates interesting scientific studies and findings that are funded in part or entirely by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management.
A critical challenge in supporting climate change adaptation is improving the linkage between climate-impacts and vulnerability research and public and private planning and management decisions. We highlight the need for bottom-up/top-down vulnerability assessment, bringing together bottom-up knowledge of existing vulnerabilities with top-down climate-impact projections, as a transparent basis for informing decisions intended to reduce vulnerability.
A how-to guide for effective printed materials compiled by the National Park Service as part of the Community Toolbox.
Authors assert that increased civic capacity fosters smoother process and effective deliberation about environmental issues.
This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of 80 articles, chapters, and practitioners' guides focused on collaboration and coalition functioning.
This guide provides information on the negotiation process and outlines strategies both for getting to the negotiated agreements and for getting the most out of those agreements on natural resource issues.
This article discusses how citizen scientists play an important role in conservation outreach and provides findings showing a link between participation in citizen science and involvement in conservation.
From this website you can access cutting edge scientific information about climate change in California.
This study examines the beliefs and attitudes of campers in the Saranac Lakes Wild Forest in New York's Adirondack Park with respect to participation in nonmotorized boating, motorized boating, and personal watercraft use. Initially, qualitative interviews with land managers provided insight into campers' beliefs and attitudes about boating; these insights were used to develop a questionnaire for campers.
Background: Climate change may subject forests to climate conditions to which they are not adapted. Elevated temperatures can potentially reduce net photosynthesis by increasing respiration rates and increasingly long droughts dramatically increase morbidity.
Trends in the timing of snowmelt and associated runoff in Colorado were evaluated for the 1978–2007 water years using the regional Kendall test (RKT) on daily snow-water equivalent (SWE) data from snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) sites and daily streamflow data from headwater streams. The RKT is a robust, nonparametric test that provides an increased power of trend detection by grouping data from multiple sites within a given geographic region. The RKT analyses indicated strong, pervasive trends in snowmelt and streamflow timing, which have shifted toward earlier in the year by a median of 2–3 weeks over the 29-yr study period.
This chapter discusses how to develop intercultural sensitivity in order to work across these diverse backgrounds.
Recent conservation planning studies have presented approaches for integrating spatially referenced social (SRS) data with a view to improving the feasibility of conservation action. We reviewed the growing conservation literature on SRS data, focusing on elicited or stated preferences derived through social survey methods such as choice experiments and public participation geographic information systems. Elicited SRS data includes the spatial distribution of willingness to sell, willingness to pay, willingness to act, and assessments of social and cultural values. We developed a typology for assessing elicited SRS data uncertainty which describes how social survey uncertainty propagates when projected spatially and the importance of accounting for spatial uncertainty such as scale effects and data quality.
Using a community based social marketing (CBSM) framework the authors, professors, and researchers describe proenvironmental behavior change process, tools, and applications.
This article provides guidance on what community-based social marketing tools to use when in order to successfully change behavior.
It is widely argued that increased community participation in government decision making produces many important benefits.
This article presents the Monarch Larva Monitoring Project as a useful citizen science approach to engaging both youth and adults in monitoring activities.
Lead shot used for hunting gets left in environments worldwide, and is toxic. This study applies a multilevel, multi-variable theory to examining positive and negative beliefs and attitudes about bans on using lead shot by hunters.
Rivers provide a special suite of goods and services valued highly by the public that are inextricably linked to their flow dynamics and the interaction of flow with the landscape. Yet most rivers are within watersheds that are stressed to some extent by human activities including development, dams, or extractive uses. Climate change will add to and magnify risks that are already present through its potential to alter rainfall, temperature, runoff patterns, and to disrupt biological communities and sever ecological linkages.
This report from the National Wildlife Refuge System offers ten key engagement strategies for creative effective messages about climate change.
The Yakima River Reservoir system supplies water to ~180,000 irrigated hectares through the operation of five reservoirs with cumulative storage of ~30% mean annual river flow. Runoff is derived mostly from winter precipitation in the Cascade Mountains, much of which is stored as snowpack. Climate change is expected to result in earlier snowmelt runoff and reduced summer flows.
It is hard to look back over 30 years of climate change research and not lament the lack of movement among policymakers as our knowledge has improved, the science has strengthened, and the evidence that we live in a world that is being fundamentally altered by human activities has accumulated. The failure of scientists to convince policy makers to act, or the failure of policy makers to take action on the information the scientific community is providing, means that unavoidable climate change will alter our planet in increasingly serious ways.
Since 2000, southwestern North America has experienced widespread drought. Lakes Powell and Mead are now at less than 50% of their reservoir capacity, and drought or fire-related states of emergency were declared this past summer by governors in six western states.
The ability of California's water supply system to adapt to long-term climatic and demographic changes is examined. Two climate warming and a historical climate scenarios are examined with population and land use estimates for the year 2100 using a statewide economic-engineering optimization model of water supply management.
This newsletter published by the NOAA Coastal Services Center focuses on tools for coastal resource management.
Extreme weather, sea-level rise and degraded coastal ecosystems are placing people and property at greater risk of damage from coastal hazards. The likelihood and magnitude of losses may be reduced by intact reefs and coastal vegetation, especially when those habitats fringe vulnerable communities and infrastructure.
It is proposed that individual inventory, monitoring, modeling, and remote sensing systems be specialized to achieve portions of the objectives. These separate systems can be statistically linked to accomplish all objectives, which might simplify statistical designs and improve efficiency and timeliness.
This article from Cornell University discuss findings from a 2016 study on how the way we tend to convey statistical and verbal information about species' extinction risk is interpreted by audiences.
Many members of the scientific community attempt to convey information to policymakers and the public. Much of this information is ignored or misinterpreted. This article describes why these outcomes occur and how science communicators can achieve better outcomes. The article focuses on two challenges associated with communicating scientific information to such audiences. One challenge is that people have less capacity to pay attention to scientific presentations than many communicators anticipate. A second challenge is that people in politicized environments often make different choices about whom to believe than do people in other settings.
This article explores the relationship between the scientific information and users of scientific information, including what sources are trusted and used most.
The authors of this piece describe how not to implement social change and then how to conduct effective community engagement and use data to determine the best approaches to social programs.
This study shows that fishing opportunities in community lakes improve experiences of young anglers and provide families with opportunities to recreate.
Much of the land in Mexico's Monarch Butterfly Reserve is owned by agrarian communities. This article discusses research done to determine what factors, such as the presence of community institutions and political contexts, influence forest conservation. Findings show that tensions between different levels of institutions, from state to community, hinder forest conservation.
This paper explores the value of using community risk assessments (CRAs) for climate change adaptation. CRA refers to participatory methods to assess hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities in support of community-based disaster risk reduction, used by many NGOs, community-based organizations, and the Red Cross/Red Crescent.
This toolkit, developed by Community Places, outlines the necessary steps to successful community engagement.
Volunteers come from all walks of life, bringing an array of expertise to any number of necessary positions in a community or project. This tool box provided by the National Park Service Rivers and Trails program highlights the value of diversity among volunteers and the most effective ways to get and keep volunteers engaged with the project.
In order to explore scientists' roles in advocacy, this study examined the perspectives of students, academic faculty, and natural resource professionals regarding the role of scientists in policy and advocacy.
This paper describes the principles of marketing and how they can be used for conservation and animal welfare in two examples: Project Ocean and the documentary Blackfish.
This article summarizes current research on the design and development of an interactive, intelligent, spatial information system (IISIS) for decision support in the mitigation of, and response to, risk from hazardous materials for a university community. Appropriate uses of the IISIS prototype are expected to increase both the technical and organizational capacity to manage timely, accurate information exchange within and among organizations, thus increasing coordination in action.
One of the desired outcomes of dam decommissioning and removal is the recovery of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. To investigate this common objective, we synthesized information from empirical studies and ecological theory into conceptual models that depict key physical and biological links driving ecological responses to removing dams.
Establishing a water trail connects a community to their heritage and natural resources. With the help of the National Park Service -- Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance program, the community of Suffolk, Virginia, now has a network of water trails to explore.
... But while conservation has historically been locally driven -- focused on saving specific places such as Yosemite National Park and the Grand Canyon, or on managing very limited ecological systems like watersheds and forests -- its more recent ambitions have become almost fantastical. For example, is halting deforestation in the Amazon, an area nearly the size of the continental United States, feasible? Is it even necessary? Putting a boundary around Yosemite Valley is not the same as attempting to do so around the Amazon. Just as the United States was dammed, logged, and crisscrossed by roads, it is likely that much of the Amazon will be as well.
This article discusses the phenomenon of the monarch butterfly migration and overwintering as it relates to income generation for locals around Mexico's Monarch Butterfly Reserve.
We assessed attainability of landscape-level conservation planning goals in the United States portion of the Prairie Pothole Region by summarizing and analyzing data on status, trends, and potential future of grasslands and wetlands. Our comprehensive assessment may help the PPJV, and other landscape-level planning efforts, discriminate between goals they would like to attain versus goals they are likely to achieve.
In identifying how environmental issues can be improved with an understanding of the human dimensions, this article reviews 18 fields and identifies 10 distinct contributions that social sciences can make to conservation. It also provides reference for those wishing to engage with the conservation social sciences.
This economic assessment estimates the annual economic contributions attributed to five focus areas: aquatic habitat conservation, aquatic species conservation of refugia, invasive species management, and subsistence fisheries, and public use.
This article explores the idea that a person's stance on an environmental issue is very much influenced by the context surrounding that issue.
This study addresses the value of non-urban parks in the physical activity of youth in three Georgia state parks.
This publication explores the various ways in which human existence relies on a variety of species of animals and plants in order to survive and thrive.
Wildlife-vehicle collisions seem to be increasing over the last few decades in both the United States and Canada. This publication calculates the overall cost of the average collision, and reviewed the cost of collision mitigation measures to calculate the overall cost-benefit and where the break-even point is to start gaining benefits.
It is widely recognized that communications that activate social norms can be effective in producing societally beneficial conduct. Not so well recognized are the circumstances under which normative information can backfire to produce the opposite of what a communicator intends.
This article provides examples of injunctive and descriptive norms and how to use them to your advantage when communicating.
This study examines perceived threats to water quantity and guality based on technology, behavior, and policy-based facts across the United States, Fiji, New Zealand, and Bolivia.
An information paper drafted by the Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition exploring and categorizing undersea noises and the potential threat to biodiversity examines research and experiments focused on man-made audio disturbances. The authors identify several areas in need of research to identify effects of ocean noise on terrestrial species that use the oceans as their hunting habitat. It concludes with a discussion of recommendations for policy and management to protect biodiversity and human interests in the Southern and Antarctic oceans.
An outdoor recreation customer service strategy designed for the USDA Forest Service (FS) was studied using data from a field test at national forest (NF) settings in southern California.
"Ecosystem service" has come to represent several related topics ranging from the measurement to the marketing of ecosystem service flows. In this article we examine several of these topics by first clarifying the meaning of "ecosystem service" and then (1) placing ecosystem goods and services within an economic framework, emphasizing the role and limitations of substitutes; (2) summarizing the methods for valuation of ecosystem goods and services; and (3) reviewing the various approaches for their provision and financing.
Better understanding of the changing relationship between human populations and climate is a global research priority. The 20th century in the contiguous United States offers a particularly well-documented example of human demographic expansion during a period of radical socioeconomic and environmental change. One would expect that as human society has been transformed by technology, we would become increasingly decoupled from climate and more dependent on social infrastructure. Here we use spatially-explicit models to evaluate climatic, socio-economic and biophysical correlates of demographic change in the contiguous United States between 1900 and 2000.
Education team members of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration created this resource for professionals tasked with the design and implementation of education projects in a variety of settings.
This article applies formal detection and attribution techniques to investigate the nature of observed shifts in the timing of streamflow in the western United States. Previous studies have shown that the snow hydrology of the western United States has changed in the second half of the twentieth century.
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land retirement contracts will begin to expire in late 1995. A multinomial logit model is used to identify characteristics influencing New Mexico CRP participant post-CRP land use plans. Results indicate post-CRP land uses intentions will vary with attributes reflecting characteristics of the land enrolled, socioeconomic variables, and participant attitudes. Results point to a CRP-facilitated retreat from crop production to future ranching by many producers. The analysis suggests future changes in the structure and character of southern Great Plains agriculture and surrounding communities.
Designed as a course outline for leading logic models workshops, the authors provide an overview of all elements of model design.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) creates a six-step process for planning, implementing, and reporting on evaluations of programs.
Invasive species can alter ecosystem properties and cause state shifts in landscapes. Resource managers charged with maintaining landscapes require tools to understand implications of alternative actions (or inactions) on landscape structure and function.
A key challenge for water managers is how to incorporate highly uncertain information about potential climate change from global models into local- and regional-scale water management models and tools to support local planning. This paper presents a new method for developing large ensembles of local daily weather that reflect a wide range of plausible future climate change scenarios while preserving many statistical properties of local historical weather patterns. This method is demonstrated by evaluating the possible impact of climate change on the Inland Empire Utilities Agency service area in southern California.
Human–wildlife conflicts like wildlife–vehicle collisions pose major challenges for the management and conservation of mobile wildlife in human-dominated landscapes, particularly when large species are involved.
The pressure to reduce risk and quickly rebuild communities after disasters can result in reactionary policies that increase long-term vulnerability. This article applies a framework to the aftermath of a Tsunami in Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004 and reviews impacts of the policy for the following 10 months.
Higher temperatures increase the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere and can lead to greater atmospheric demand for evapotranspiration, especially during warmer seasons of the year. Increases in precipitation or atmospheric humidity ameliorate this enhanced demand, whereas decreases exacerbate it. In the southwestern United States (Southwest), this means the greatest changes in evapotranspirational demand resulting from higher temperatures could occur during the hot–dry foresummer and hot–wet monsoon.
The New South Wales (Australia) Department of Environment and Conservation created this handbook to provide guidance to anyone involved in education or sustainability projects development.
Communication via storytelling, according to Randy Olson, is essential to communicate science and grab the public's attention.
To evaluate the potential for bison to enhance habitat quality for wildlife and catalyze public engagement in grassland conservation, we assessed both the ecological and social effects of a recent bison reintroduction (2015) to northern Colorado. Specifically, we explored the effect of bison reintroduction on: (a) bird density and habitat use, (b) mammal habitat use, (c) vegetation composition and structure, and (d) visitor connectedness, known as place attachment, to a shortgrass prairie.
Federal investment in ecosystem restoration generate business activity and create jobs, in addition to protecting Federal trusts, preserving and enhancing essential ecosystem services, and ensuring public health and safety. This study aims to provide access to cost and economic impact of these investments by providing a series of case studies highlighting community-level findings.
On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1.
This section of the Elwha Watershed Information Resource explains the use of economic tools, methods, and data in assessing the merits of dam removal.
This article hones in on ecosystem services shared by the United States and Mexico and presents ecosystem services as a focal point for transboundary conservation.
This study finds 58% fewer wildlife mortalities from wildlife-vehicle collisions where underpasses and fencing are along highways, and provides additional insight for continuous fencing along highways.
This article discusses the impacts that human activities and resource extraction have on the Monarch Butterfly Reserve and surrounding areas and finds that areas designated as multiple use have actually been better preserved than protected areas.
The Theory of Reasoned Action can be used to predict the types of information that will influence attitudes toward and support for novel suburban deer (Odocoileus spp.) management techniques such as contraception.
Climate strongly affects energy supply and demand in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and Washington State (WA). We evaluate potential effects of climate change on the seasonality and annual amount of PNW hydropower production, and on heating and cooling energy demand.
The relative impact of a large upstream dam versus in-reach groundwater pumping on stream temperatures was analyzed for humid, semiarid, and arid conditions with long dry seasons to represent typical climate regions where large dams are present, such as the western United States or eastern Australia. Stream temperatures were simulated using the CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model over a 110 km model grid, with the presence or absence of a dam at the top of the reach and pumping in the lower 60 km of the reach. Measured meteorological data from three representative locations were used as model input to simulate the impact of varying climate conditions on streamflow and stream temperature.
Opportunities for synergy between state offices of outdoor recreation and federal land-management agencies, the outdoor recreation industry, nongovernmental organizations, and local outdoor recreation providers.
This paper examines the complexity of socio-technical energy systems, and describes the results of seeking public input about stakeholder views and concerns related to energy development in the Navajo Nation by using multidisciplinary analysis.
Energy development in rural parts of the western United States are opportunities for rational analysis of economic benefits and associated problems.
From 2009 through 2013, Environment for the Americas, National Park Service, and a suite of partners across the United States studied the barriers to Latino participation in informal science education (ISE) programs at natural areas.
This report is an in-depth analysis based on research and experience-based knowledge for engaging young adults ages 18-25 in the design of new initiatives in National Parks and other special places.
As the magnitude of human impacts on the ecological systems of the planet becomes apparent, there is increased realization of the intimate connections between these systems and human health, the economy, social justice, and national security. The concept of what constitutes “the environment” is changing rapidly. Urgent and unprecedented environmental and social changes challenge scientists to define a new social contract. New fundamental research, faster and more effective transmission of new and existing knowledge to policy- and decision-makers, and better communication of this knowledge to the public will all be required to meet this challenge.
This article discusses what framing is and how stakeholders of an environmental issue frame the situation in a different way depending on their perceptions of it, and frame themselves in a way that makes them seem right and the opposing party seem wrong.
This website is a list with links to all of EPA's Smart Growth publications.
Roads have direct and indirect ecological impacts on wildlife, and vehicle collisions are one of the top impacts with regard to birds. Current available mortality estimates for birds are derived from one study, which prompted a literature review of 20 mortality rates extracted from 13 studies, which generated 4 separate estimates along with uncertainty from the different datasets.
This paper presents an evaluation strategy for using flagship species in order to determine whether additional species are needed for a campaign, and, if they are needed, which species should be added to the "fleet".
This article takes a three-tiered approach to explaining and evaluating individual collaborative programs to assess common goal attainment and provide evidence of efficacy and impact.
This publication is a tool to help evaluate your communication using the Westminster model. The publication explores what are you trying to achieve, planning your communications and evaluation, and evaluation tools.
The North American Association for Environmental Education created this workbook for practitioners.
This working paper from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation emphasizes the importance of evaluation throughout the program planning and implementation process.
This study develops a model for attendance trends at state parks in Oklahoma from 1998 to 2014.
When governmental agencies engage Alaska Native Peoples in resource management, they encounter knowledge and belief systems far different from their own. Whether aware of it or not, the collaborators find themselves in an alternative management space in which there are more tools available than usual. A key piece of this enhanced collaborative space is the traditional knowledge of Alaska Native Peoples, which can be used to improve decision making.
This article explores the role of collaboration and communities of practice in solving wildfire issues in the West.
This paper provides insights into how to successfully engage target audiences in conservation projects in the United States, based on a study of 354 conservation projects and their outreach efforts.
This study suggests that children who play outside may be more likely to protect nature as adults.
This research experiments with possible intervention exercises to decrease fear of bears in people who live in brown bear areas.
National Wildlife Refuge System policies reference both historical condition and naturalness, but these concepts may not be valid management goals in a world with rapid climate change. Currently, within the refuge system, managers and biologists can individually decide whether management actions to maintain historical condition (retrospective) or actions to promote and enhance future condition (prospective) are appropriate. In February 2008, we surveyed 203 refuge system managers and biologists (via email) about climate change and management strategies to facilitate adaptation to climate change.
White-tailed deer overpopulation is a common challenge for natural resource managers in the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. This case study looks at the role of communication tools to gain public trust in the natural resource managers facing deer management programs.
This study explores what factors influence people's concern about interaction with black bears.
Crowdsourcing and citizen science help federal agencies to innovate, collaborate and discover.
Robust ways to meet objectives of environmental conservation and social and economic development remain elusive. This struggle may in part be related to insufficient understanding of the feedbacks between conservation initiatives and social–ecological systems, specifically, the ways in which conservation initiatives result in social changes that have secondary effects on the environments targeted by conservation. To explore this idea, we sampled peer-reviewed articles addressing the social and environmental dimensions of conservation and coded each paper according to its research focus and characterization of these feedbacks. The majority of articles in our sample focused either on the effect of conservation initiatives on people (e.g., relocation, employment) or the effect of people on the environment (e.g., fragmentation, conservation efficacy of traditional management systems).
The national parks are for the benefit and enjoyment of the people and have significant benefits that may be personal, social, environmental, and economic
This downloadable book, provided by McKenzie-Mohr & Associates, Inc. serves as a how to book for community based social marketing (CBSM).
Created by a team of nationally recognized experts in informal learning, for National Science Foundation (NSF) grantees, this framework emphasizes summative evaluation, measuring impact of education projects.
Species distributions and abundances are undergoing rapid changes worldwide. This highlights the significance of reliable, integrated information for guiding and assessing actions and policies aimed at managing and sustaining the many functions and benefits of species.
Investigate how interest groups frame perceived risks to mobilize opposition to hydraulic fracturing
This article defines frames and framing, discusses how framing influences thinking and analyzes how this one concept is used in different ways across different disciplines.
Resilience is the magnitude of disturbance that can be tolerated before a socioecological system (SES) moves to a different region of state space controlled by a different set of processes. Resilience has multiple levels of meaning: as a metaphor related to sustainability, as a property of dynamic models, and as a measurable quantity that can be assessed in field studies of SES. The operational indicators of resilience have, however, received little attention in the literature.
There have been numerous efforts to organize frameworks capturing the interdisciplinary complexities of socio-environmental problems. This paper evaluates six leading frameworks with the goals of investigating the theoretical core of Socio-environmental systems research emerging from diverse frameworks, and highlighting gaps in research brought up by a comparative evaluation.
This study investigates how meeting domestic energy production targets for both fossil and renewable fuels may affect future water demand. It combines projections of energy production developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with estimates of water consumption on a per-unit basis (water-consumption coefficients) for coal, oil, gas, and biofuels production, to estimate and compare the domestic freshwater consumed.
This article focuses on Generation Y, also commonly referred to as the Millennials. Through a scoping study of published research to 2017, we explore how Generation Y experiences, views, and is influenced by natural areas of high conservation value.
Changes in boreal climate of the magnitude projected for the 21st century have always caused vegetation changes large enough to be societally important. However, the rates and patterns of vegetation change are difficult to predict. We review evidence suggesting that these vegetation changes may be gradual at the northern forest limit or where seed dispersal limits species distribution.
Provides an overview of the public, political, and scientific concern with adaptation in the U.S. Examines the explosion in the media and in government in the need for a comprehensive approach to managing the risks from climate change. The report also identifies barriers and unmet needs to adaptation planning and policy developments, and provides suggestions to enable effective adaptation while avoiding the dangers of maladaptation and insufficient preparation for climate change.
In this paper we draw on the insights from a diverse set of case studies from around the world in which members of the Resilience Alliance have observed or engaged with sustainability problems at regional scales. Our central question is: How do certain attributes of governance function in society to enhance the capacity to manage resilience? Three specific propositions were explored: (1) participation builds trust, and deliberation leads to the shared understanding needed to mobilize and self-organize; (2) polycentric and multilayered institutions improve the fit between knowledge, action, and social-ecological contexts in ways that allow societies to respond more adaptively at appropriate levels; and (3) accountable authorities that also pursue just distributions of benefits and involuntary risks enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable groups and society as a whole. Some support was found for parts of all three propositions.
This article outlines the features needed to bridge the gaps currently hindering how science contributes to policy decisions. It highlights impediments, governance mechanisms to solve these impediments, and their strengths and weaknesses.
Wildlife conservation is losing ground in the U.S. and to address this trend, the wildlife conservation institution must adapt. Elements of public trust and good governance are combined to present guiding principles that could bring the institution in line with contemporary thinking, if adopted.
The report presents findings on the large civilian benefits for how Global Positioning System (GPS) is incorporated into industries, technologies, and sectors of the economy. The report is a step toward a comprehensive understanding of the real economic value being delivered and the implications of actions to update the availability of GPS interface or spectrum sharing adjustments, which helps inform policy analysis and changes.
The focus of research is seeking new insights based on social analyses of human engagements with water and coal seam gas in what's known as the "vertical third dimension."
This study, conducted by Michigan Technological University, set out to better understand the demographic composition of anglers in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Each state's angler population was evaluated based on sex, age, and generational cohort, to better understand the impact on the Great Lakes Region's fisheries, their related ecosystems, and fisheries management policies and practice.
Here you'll find the one-page overview highlighting all the functions and features of HDgov
Floods, windstorms, drought and wildfires have major implications for human health. To date, conceptual advances in analysis of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic hazards from the environmental and social sciences have not been widely applied in terms of health, though key progress is being made particularly in relation to climate change. This paper seeks to take this conceptual grounding further, examining how key themes relate to health concerns, exploring connections with existing health literatures, and developing an organizing framework to aid analysis of how vulnerability to health impacts varies within society and how actors make decisions and take action in relation to climatic hazards and health.
This statement, signed by 30 scientists, presents evidence behind the claim that lead-based ammunition poses health risks.
Declines in North American honeybee populations have highlighted the importance of native bee conservation, and the need for research on the ecological requirements of native bees in farmland.
Changes in the seasonality of streamflow in the western United States have important implications for water resources management and the wellbeing of coupled human-natural systems. An assessment of changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow resolved at fine time scales (days to weeks and seasons) is highly relevant to adaptive management strategies that are responsive to changing hydrologic baselines. In this paper, we present a regional analysis of the changes in streamflow seasonality through a broad classification of streams and quantification of increases and decreases in flow, based on a quantile regression methodology.
Institutions, the rules that govern interactions between people, evolve over time. This special issue presents a number of detailed case studies of human environment interactions during a significant historical period. With social-ecological systems, or a set of people, their natural and human-made resources, and the relationships among them (Anderies et al., 2004, Janssen et al., 2005).
This study documents the history of motorized access to refuge lands, using a review of pertinent documents and interviews with key respondents. The project focuses on motorized transportation practices (excluding motorboats and snow machines) prior to the early 1980s on what are now federal public lands administered by the Selawik refuge.
How to Communicate Successfully Regarding Nature-Based Solutions: Key Lessons from Research with American Voters and Elites
Part of the web-based information resource
Find out what the FWS Human Dimensions Branch was up to in FY 2016.
This paper explores ten human dimensions that are basic to the acceptance and ultimate success of MPAs: objectives and attitudes,
The objective of this document is to provide a better understanding of the role of the economic, institutional, and sociocultural components within the EAF process, and to examine some potential methods and approaches that may facilitate the adoption of EAF management.
Human Dimensions of Wildlife is devoted to the study of social considerations in fisheries and wildlife management. The journal provides an open forum for exchange of human dimensions information.
Until now, up‐to‐date, comprehensive, spatial, national‐scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use.
Ecosystem services and conservation policies improve human well-being, but the program costs and on-going benefits are not regularly examined. This paper takes a close look at China's Relocation and Settlement Program of Southern Shaanxi Province which is a voluntary participation program that pays individuals to relocate.
Current trends show that despite overall support for hunting, fewer Americans are participating in the activity. Traditional recruitment and retention methods in which hunting families initiate, train, and socialize their children or other family members into hunting tradition are still the primary routes to recruiting and retaining new hunters.
Five barriers to joint involvement of the social and natural sciences include the weakness of the social sciences, a perceived illegitimacy of the social sciences, the punishments associated with interdisciplinary research, the lack of disciplinary support structures, and conflicts over power and control.
This publication was created using results from the global "Think Tank on the Human Dimensions of Large Scale Marine Protected Areas", in an effort to be proactive in understanding the issues and developing best management practices that address the human dimensions of these marine protected areas.
This article examines four case-study areas in northern Germany for sustainable land use management. It discusses the guiding principle process and presents two methodological aspests addressing the challenges between practitioners and researchers.
This guidebook seeks to help field planners learn technology from indigenous people which could improve or expand existing natural resources conservation service practices.
This guide from National Audubon Society and partners answers the most important questions about how to influence behavior to increase conservation action.
Citizen Science Framework Review - Informing a Framework for Citizen Science within the US Fish and Wildlife Service (and addendum). Jennifer Shirk & Rick Bonney.
This article employs the framework developed to study resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation in socio-ecological systems (the SES framework) in an effort to illuminate the conditions leading to state changes in environmental and resource regimes. Following a discussion of several conceptual issues, it examines institutional stresses, stress management mechanisms, and the changes that occur when interactive and cumulative stresses overwhelm these mechanisms.
Many dimensions of wildfire risk are challenging to U.S. federal land management agencies who strive to meet societal needs while maintaining the health of the public lands they manage. This article presents a quantitative, geospatial wildfire risk assessment tool.
This report is a summary of a workshop committee convened to examine using landscape and multi-resource analyses to better inform federal decision making for management of natural resources.
An important part of watershed assessment and planning is integrating stakeholder values into the process of quantifying impairment of ecosystem functions. This study explores a systematic evaluation of human and ecosystem indicators within a watershed to classify and prioritize degradation at a subbasin scale within the watershed.
Watershed assessment and planning has many important aspects of quantifying impairment of ecosystem functions, and this article examines integrating stakeholder values into the process.
Increasingly, research addresses challenges and opportunities of an interdisciplinary nature, though there is also an increased disconnect between research and the needs and concerns of the public. This article takes a look at this disconnect and the effectiveness of integrating social scientists into publicly funded research initiatives.
This paper discusses the policy or management process of interdisciplinary problem-solving for the purpose of solving conservation problems and uses a case study on the Yellowstone grizzly bear as an example of applying this approach.
The International Association for Society and Natural Research has two publications: the Keeping in Touch newsletter for anyone interested in the society's news and events, and the Society & Natural Resources journal available to association members and subscribers.
Created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this study guide provides a foundation for understanding the purpose of evaluation, its, terminology, and methodology.
Some of the most challenging decisions in coastal management stem from the relationship between people and the environment. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Services Center provides technical assistance to coastal management professionals addressing complex human-based problems.
Public attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs can strongly influence coastal management decision-making. Officials use surveys and other social science tools to identify the relationship between a community and its natural resources. This document provides insight into the various types and methods of survey research, including -Sampling techniques -Survey delivery mechanisms -Effective survey questions -Effective reporting of survey results
This paper explains how age, income, gender, and type of land visited explain variation in wildlife watching willingness to pay (WTP) and consumer surplus (CS).
Eighteenth-century Japanese Samurai wisdom dictates that it is a bad thing when one thing becomes two . This wisdom is an organizing premise: The distinction between environmental sociology and sociology of natural resources is artificial and counterproductive. Distinctions between these subdisciplines are described as ''trained incapacities'' resulting from specialized training that narrows scientists' range of perception and reduces their effectiveness. The analysis uses the concept of postnormal science to illustrate that many modern environmental problems are too complex and ambiguous for science alone to solve.
This journal includes papers in policy analysis, policy modeling, policy surveys and synthesis, institutional analysis, conceptual/theoretical papers, case studies and case histories from academic and non-academic experts in the natural resources and environmental field.
Authors focus on using the framing technique to convery technical information in the most effective way
The publication explores changes in use and impacts on the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States.
For 30 years, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has created substantial habitat for birds and other wildlife species by providing landowners with a financial incentive to remove marginal land from agricultural production and establish grasslands. Declines in the number of acres enrolled in the program over the last decade, however, raise concerns about the fate of these grasslands once incentives end.
To address rapidly changing and uncertain environmental and social change on large landscapes/seascapes, conservation organizations need to overcome barriers to collaboration and create governance structures that integrate ecological, biological and physical sciences with social science insight and refine decisions based on new information. This article reinforces the need for institutionalization of adaptive co-governance of social–ecological systems and suggests that Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are bridging entities within a broader co-governance framework. LCCs, a network of conservation organizations both governmental and nongovernmental, have great potential to facilitate conservation of rapidly changing social–ecological systems by providing structure and incentives for collaboration and shared learning.
Use of landscape design bridges the gap in knowledge and implementation in planning through increased emphasis on the interdisciplinary nature of conservation planning and engagement of a stakeholder advisory team.
While minority groups have become much larger percentages of the U.S. population, land management agencies have been slow in responding to the overall demographic shift, especially with regard to outdoor recreation activities.This article focuses on Latino Outdoors is using storytelling and social media technology to increase access to public lands and create a Latino-centered message for environmental awareness and belonging.
This article discusses the relevant considerations for selecting and promoting flagship species, especially Lepidoptera.
This article presents findings showing that 10 million hunters, their families, and low-income beneficiaries of venison donations face exposure risk to lead from venison killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets.
This article uses a systemic perspective to identify and analyze the conceptual relations among vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity within socio-ecological systems (SES). Since different intellectual traditions use the terms in different, sometimes incompatible, ways, they emerge as strongly related but unclear in the precise nature of their relationships. A set of diagnostic questions is proposed regarding the specification of the terms to develop a shared conceptual framework for the natural and social dimensions of global change.
This recent study, which monitored a cohort of 1.3 million Canadians living in urban areas, finds that urban greenness had a significant impact on cause-specific mortality rates.
This paper distinguishes between two types of emergency management at the local scale—municipal government responsibilities and community-level initiatives. It argues that these are interdependent, but separate aspects of emergency management.
The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period.
A monthly snow accumulation and melt model is used with gridded monthly temperature and precipitation data for the Northern Hemisphere to generate time series of March snow-covered area (SCA) for the period 1905 through 2002. The time series of estimated SCA for March is verified by comparison with previously published time series of SCA for the Northern Hemisphere. The time series of estimated Northern Hemisphere March SCA shows a substantial decrease since about 1970, and this decrease corresponds to an increase in mean winter Northern Hemisphere temperature.
This publication provides resources and guidance on overcoming ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity barriers that exist in mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation policy, science, and implementation.
This paper discusses the role of the science of science communication in communicating climate change.
Ecosystem-based planning and management have stimulated the need to gather sociocultural values and human uses of land in formats accessible to diverse planners and researchers. Human Ecology Mapping (HEM) approaches offer promising spatial data gathering and analytical tools, while also addressing important questions about human-landscape connections. This article reviews and compares the characteristics of three HEM approaches that are increasingly used in natural resource management contexts, each focused on a particular aspect of human-environmental interactions. These aspects include tenure and resource use (TRU), local ecological knowledge (LEK), and sense of place (SOP).
This technical guide supports transportation planners and natural resource specialists using standardized, scientific approaches to determine ecological priorities and integrate them into infrastructure decision-making.
This article by Robert Cialdini and collaborators discusses an example of the use of social norms to influence environmental behavior.
A survey of 898 users of Chicago's largest park provided an opportunity to examine the patterns of use and preferences among different racially and ethnically groups.
How different is scenario planning done for public versus private purposes? In asking this question, Jay Ogilvy and Erik Smith look at regional projects done in the public interest, and distill a set of lessons through a brief examination of regional scenario planning projects run by Global Business Network throughout the 1990s.
It is not an eye-opening statement to suggest that natural resource management increasingly occurs in turbulent, contentious settings. These settings are often typified by contested or ambiguous goals and lack of scientific agreement on cause & effect relationships.
This publication goes into detail the practices and studies being done on the buffer zone between the wilderness and non-wilderness lands on the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana. A combination of qualitative, culturally sensitive research and a web-based mapping exercise have been used to develop understanding of the tradeoffs Reservation residents describe in relation to potential buffer zone actions.
The seven Essential Principles of Ocean Literacy are listed in this document with those concepts that most relate to MPA Center resources highlighted in blue. Resource boxes showcase the MPA resources that illustrate each concept.
An Internationally Recognized Journal Covering Economic and Policy Analysis of: Seafood Marketing and Trade, Marine and Coastal Recreation,Fisheries Conservation and Management, Coastal Land Use and Watershed Management, Non-Market Valuation, and Aquaculture.
This article focuses in on a long-standing conflict over motorized use in Voyageurs National Park in Northern Minnesota and the fact that despite the excessive effort by either side of the conflict, no one seems to ever come out victorious.
This paper discusses results from multiple group confirmatory factor analyses (MGCFA) of how ethnicity, acculturation, and language affect wildlife value orientation (WVO) scales across Hispanic and non-Hispanic white communities.
This guide is the compiled work of 20 environmental educators participating in a project-based on-line learning community hosted by EECapacity, and sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
This paper features preliminary results on an attempt to describe visitor characteristics based on the meanings they attach to particular resources, such as wilderness, national parks, and historic sites.
Based on experiences as environmental educators in the parks of British Columbia, Canada, the authors provide real world examples of evaluation.
Natural resource conservation plans have been included in some of these plan evaluation studies; however, no meta-analysis of natural resource planning literature has been conducted. We selected 10 natural resource conservation plan evaluation studies in peer reviewed literature, identified the plan components being evaluated and the methods used in each study, and compared our findings to two other plan evaluation meta-analyses in the literature.
Surveys from 2002, 2004, and 2008 are used to summarize environmental literacy in Minnesota, as well as show a breakdown based on demographics.
Nature provides a wide range of benefits to people. There is increasing consensus about the importance of incorporating these “ecosystem services” into resource management decisions, but quantifying the levels and values of these services has proven difficult. We use a spatially explicit modeling tool, Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST), to predict changes in ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, and commodity production levels. We apply InVEST to stakeholder-defined scenarios of land-use/land-cover change in the Willamette Basin, Oregon.
This book summarizes recent developments in scientific research around monarch biology, conservation and outreach.
Monitoring of biodiversity and resource use by professional scientists is often costly and hard to sustain, especially in developing countries, where financial resources are limited. Moreover, such monitoring can be logistically and technically difficult and is often perceived to be irrelevant by resource managers and the local communities. Alternatives are emerging, carried out at a local scale and by individuals with little formal education. In this issue of Biodiversity and Conservation, 15 case studies examine whether these new approaches can address the limitations of professional monitoring in developing countries.
This article presents research on what influences wolf stakeholders' values and behaviors.
Integrating the concept of place meanings into protected area management has been difficult. Across a diverse body of social science literature, challenges in the conceptualization and application of place meanings continue to exist.
This article discusses the significance of the relationship between visitors to a place or protected area and the protected area managers or staff that they interact with.
Check out this article that takes a look at landowners' motivations for enrolling in the James River Basin Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP).
The ability of social–ecological systems to build resilience in the context of hazards is an important factor in their long-term sustainability. The role of resilience-building in understanding the impact of hazards in mountain areas is examined and illustrated, in part, through examples from Canada and India.
While previous research suggests suitable habitat exists in northern Lower Michigan to support a small wolf population, habitat availability at other hierarchical levels, including den habitat and the ability of individuals to disperse successfully among suitable habitat patches, has not been assessed. We evaluated the den habitat availability and landscape connectivity using a multi-scale modeling approach that integrates hierarchical habitat selection theory as well as spatial structure to assess whether corridors exist for wolves to successfully recolonize and raise pups in northern Lower Michigan.
Partnerships among stakeholders can facilitate knowledge transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (ETs) from developed countries to developing countries, and offer a pathway that protects the interests of developed countries private enterprise while also enhancing the technology capacity of the developing country. This publication provides opinions and a case study on this kind of partnership and discusses the advantages that it offers.
This on-line tutorial created by a consortium of universities and natural resource agencies guides education program planners in the creation of an evaluation plan.
Birders make up a large portion of wildlife viewers in the United States. They serve as a potential resource for support for bird conservation. But not all birders are the same.
This 2007 publication by the BLM National Landscape Conservation System Office presents a guide for the science program from 2007 to 2017 outlining a series of objectives and actions to achieve certain conservation goals.
A resource on supporting walking and bicycling for national parks and their partners.
This article underlines understanding the full extent of economic benefits supported by national parks to further the mission of these protected areas in developed countries.
Central challenges of the 21st century include achieving a sustainable population level and securing life-support systems for human well-being through economic, social, and governance systems. Integrating natural capital and ecosystem services is instrumental in meeting these challenges. We examine three key areas of progress integrating natural capital into decision-making, and explore why ecosystem service information is not yet universally included in decision-making, and offer suggested paths forward for creating change.
This periodical covers current disaster issues; new international, national, and local disaster management, mitigation, and education programs; hazards research; political and policy developments; new information sources and Web sites; upcoming conferences; and recent publications.
The NRM Gateway is intended to provide information on the Army Corps of Engineers'' recreation, environmental stewardship and environmental compliance programs to Corps of Engineers staff.
An important precursor to the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies is to understand the perceived capacity to implement and operationalize such strategies.
Mediation is a valuable, effective tool for resolving natural resources disputes, though it has been underutilized across sectors in the international system.
This book is published in Spanish and is called "Nature in Society: a Look at the Human Dimensions of Biodiversity Conservation"
Ecosystem Services assessed economic value is growing in recognized value for decision-making and avoiding unintended negative consequences while setting policy protecting natural capital for sustainability and resilience.
KEY WORDS: Indonesia, adaptive learning, adaptive options, agroforests, integrated natural resource management, land-use change scenarios, negotiation support models, quantitative impact assessments, scaling rules, stakeholders, sustainability assessments, tropical forest margins.
It is hypothesized that collective efficacy, defined as social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good, is linked to reduced violence. This hypothesis was tested on a 1995 survey of 8,782 residents of 343 neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. Multilevel analyses showed that a measure of collective efficacy yields a high between-neighborhood reliability and is negatively associated with variations in violence, when individual-level characteristics, measurement error, and prior violence are controlled.
The purpose of this study was to examine public awareness in nearby rural populations for Cypress Creek National Wildlife. It also explores efforts for more effective communication with local residents regarding the refuge's future programs and services.
Kristoff sheds light on the confusing topic of communicating the need to take action to address giant problems by exploring social psychology research about how to truly win the sympathy of individuals and motivate people to take action.
Species distribution models have many applications in conservation and ecology, and climate data are frequently a key driver of these models. Often, correlative modeling approaches are developed with readily available climate data; however, the impacts of the choice of climate normals is rarely considered.
Open Standards, created by a consortium of foundations, non-governmental organizations and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, was designed for scientific staff working on range-country conservation projects but has application in other fields.
This article suggests integrating traditional phenological knowledge, or TPK, into adaptive management approaches to fire regimes in social-ecological systems.
The eight arctic and boreal nations are now experiencing un-precedented environmental and social changes. The following seven papers in this Ambio issue summarize results that explain why northern countries might be either unusually resilient or vulnerable to these changes. These papers result from a meeting sponsored by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry and the International Arctic Research Center to address high-latitude sustainability.
Protoype Statistics released by the US Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis show that outdoor recreation economy accounted for $373.7 billion of current-dollar GDP in 2016.
Usage of online data collection methods is increasing in leisure research. Some potential benefits to using online methods over traditional paper/pencil techniques include financial savings and easier access to large populations. Disadvantages, however, include difficulty in sample selection and variations of the instruments' reliability. This study explores how subject responses potentially differ when collecting data online versus paper/pencil for six instruments commonly used within leisure research.
This article explores the effects of sound on protected natural areas through careful case studies in marine sanctuaries and on public lands. The authors provide discussion on improving the EIS process so that natural soundscapes may be conserved for the enjoyment of people and the protection of wildlife behavior. Historically, sound studies have focused on maximum tolerance for human communities; and emerging studies and practices present opportunities to incorporate heightened levels of noise protection.
This document is a review of almost 100 articles from 17 peer-reviewed journals on solutions to address barriers to minority populations in their visitation of parks, monuments, and other recreational areas.
The geographic location of Bangladesh at the confluence of the three mighty river systems of the world renders the country one of the most vulnerable places to natural disasters. Human-induced climate change exacerbates the problem. This study shows that the government of Bangladesh has already established a multi-layered institutional mechanism for disaster management, with formal recognition of the role of various stakeholders.
This article argues that, although the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was correct in determining that we have lost a great deal of ecosystem services, there are benefits that are largely unpriced.
Freshwater resources are fundamental for maintaining human health, agricultural production, economic activity as well as critical ecosystem functions. As populations and economies grow, new constraints on water resources are appearing, raising questions about limits to water availability.
This special issue is intended to further the idea that the aspects of community and peoples’ power to mitigate, to improve coping mechanisms, to respond effectively, and recover with vigor against the environmental extremes are of paramount conceptual and policy importance.
To improve marine resource management, it is critical to understand the impacts of the wind farm on marine resource users in context.
International business negotiations depend on effective negotiations that take place in an environment determined by culture, time, surroundings, place, and people. This study investigates the influence of the international marketing environment, awareness of negotiation skills, interest groups, and atmosphere on negotiation behavior of marketers in a global firm.
US national wildlife refuges have recent, detailed management plans illustrating the state of planning for climate-change adaptation in protected areas.
One approach for identifying ecological aspects is ecosystem services (ES)—that is, the benefits humans receive from nature. To incorporate ecological impacts into drought planning in the Upper Missouri Headwaters (UMH) region (Montana, USA), we combined ES elicitation using the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services and a vulnerability assessment using semi‐structured interviews.
This publication is a an evaluation of the planning objectives written into Comprehensive Conservation Plans for the National Wildlife Refuge System.
This study sought to determine priority research questions according to policy makers, government scientists, and academic scientists.
Mechanical predator removal programs have gained popularity in the United States and have benefited the recovery of several native trout and spring fish. These successes have been limited to headwater streams and small, isolated ponds or springs. This leads to the obvious question: is mechanical removal or control in large (>100 cfs base flow) western streams technically or politically feasible?
Integrating wildlife management into routine livestock operations has become a priority of many wildlife conservation agencies and nongovernmental organizations because grazing lands occupy more than one-third of the United States. We surveyed 1,093 beef cattle ranchers by mail to predict cattle rancher intentions to consider wildlife management in routine cattle management activities. We framed our survey using the theory of planned behavior, whereby attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explain behavioral intent. Our results indicated that attitudes and subjective norms best explained rancher intentions.
In 2013, the National Recreation Foundation and the National Recreation and Park Association provided grants to five communities across the United States. The grant was to enhance programs designed to strengthen linkages between public park and healthcare sectors, like "park prescriptions."
The purpose of this presentation is to better understand and improve public participation on the part of Alaska Natives in conservation planning.
These principles provide the framework for natural allies among outdoor recreation enthusiasts, conservation advocates, and public land managers to reduce conflict and increase participation in protecting public lands.
Consequences for relocating specific reptiles and amphibians can vary significantly between successfully saving an endangered species and unsuccessful mitigation of human conflict associated with a particular creature. This article examines the management practices for relocating individual creatures causing human-wildlife conflict.
Commissioned by the Northwest Health Foundation, the authors, professors and practitioners, have created a guide for program evaluation that is applicable across disciplines.
The consequent loss and degradation of urban and peri-urban green space could adversely affect ecosystems as well as human health and well-being.
This article, by Dr. Doug McKenzie-Mohr, breaks down the ways in which psychology can be used to promote positive environmental behavior through a process called community-based social marketing (CBSM).
This study, conducted by The Associate Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research and The Yale School of Forestry& Environmental Studies, shows that there are 9 types of Americans with regards to environmental attitudes.
As public participation in environmental decisions has increased, natural resource management agencies have been challenged to involve stakeholders constructively in the resolution of a variety of contentious issues.
This report provides information from the general public survey conducted in early 2017 to help inform the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) 2018 update.
This portal provides access to a partial listing of publications produced by the Human Dimensions Research Unit (HDRU). Most of the documents listed were published after 2004.
This study reports on developing a technique to help with cross-cultural assessments of wildlife value orientations.
This research explores the effect of access to harvest location on hunters' harvest success, specifically in moose harvest locations in Interior Alaska.
This article discusses social science literature and theoretical perspectives on minority use of the National Park System.
Race and ethnicity have important impacts on the choices a person makes about leisure activities. This book reviews the theories and practices that attempt to explain these impacts.
This report informs the development of strategies to address our changing audiences based on reviews of existing literature. The report was supported by a cooperative agreement between North Carolina State University and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Human Dimensions Branch.
The video archive contains seminars exploring specific policy practices and case studies.
This paper presents research on anglers' attitudes toward and awareness of nonnative fish species in the Everglades.
This report evaluates geotagged photographs taken and posted to social media by members of the public to lakes show that improved water clarity is associated with an increased numbers of recreational visits to lakes, demonstrating the potential for social-media data to inform socio-ecological research.
Examining the future of landscape-scale climate change adaptation on the Kenai Peninsula in response to participant identified barriers to implementation.
Concern over changes in global climate caused by growing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases has increased in recent years as our understanding of atmospheric dynamics and global climate systems has improved. Major alterations in regional hydrologic cycles and subsequent changes in regional water availability may be the most important effects of such climatic changes. Unfortunately, these are among the least well-understood impact. Water-balance modeling techniques - modified for assessing climatic impacts - were developed and tested for a major watershed in northern California using climate-change scenarios from both state-of-the-art general circulation models and from a series of hypothetical scenarios.
Emerging recognition of two fundamental errors under-pinning past polices for natural resource issues heralds awareness of the need for a worldwide fundamental change in thinking and in practice of environmental management. The first error has been an implicit assumption that ecosystem responses to human use are linear, predictable and controllable. The second has been an assumption that human and natural systems can be treated independently.
Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs) behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders.
Resilience is widely seen as a desirable system property in environmental management. This paper explores the concept of resilience to natural hazards, using weather-related hazards in coastal mega cities as an example. The paper draws on the wide literature on mega cities, coastal hazards, hazard risk reduction strategies, and resilience within environmental management.
The concept of resilience has evolved considerably since Holling’s (1973) seminal paper. Different interpretations of what is meant by resilience, however, cause confusion. Resilience of a system needs to be considered in terms of the attributes that govern the system’s dynamics. Three related attributes of social–ecological systems (SESs) determine their future trajectories: resilience, adaptability, and transformability.
To understand the various concepts of resilience, vulnerability, and adaptation, it is important to know their intellectual histories, which is one of the goals of this issue.
The resilience perspective is increasingly used as an approach for understanding the dynamics of social–ecological systems. This article presents the origin of the resilience perspective and provides an overview of its development to date.
The objectives of this review are to identify, evaluate, and compare approaches that have been proposed or used to resolve disputes over science in natural resource decision making processes. We highlighted the inherent difficulties in using science to inform decisionmaking, emphasized the importance of identifying the underlying drivers behind disputes over science in decisionmaking, and outlined several dimensions along which disputes can vary in their composition and scope.
On the Colorado River (as elsewhere), severe drought is useful for illuminating sources of water supply vulnerability, focusing attention on deficiencies in water allocation and management. A major drought study in the early 1990s, and experience with real drought a decade later, both have been useful in understanding vulnerability as a function of several factors working in consort with drought, including water allocation, reservoir operations, water demands, and climate change.
A recent study that analyzed more than 12,000 surveys from 19 states and ballot initiatives related to hunting finds that with growing proportions of mutualists in states, traditionalists are beginning to lose trust in the state fish and wildlife agencies.
Often perception by community residents and lay public of risk differ from actual risk that is based on careful analysis. We need to learn to communicate actual risk by using active listening, assessing frames within which risks are perceived, and separating identity frames from risk frames.
In this paper, the authors describe the context of riverscape ecology as part of a social-ecological system and describe examples that can lead to stronger integration of social and ecological science.
Some social-ecological systems (SESs) have persisted for hundreds of years, remaining in particular configurations that have withstood a variety of natural and social disturbances. Through the analysis of a series of case studies, we begin to characterize different types of adaptations to particular types of variability and explore vulnerabilities that may emerge as a result of this adaptive process.
We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s) of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1) What is a “scale mismatch?” (2) How are scale mismatches generated? (3) What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4) How can scale mismatches be resolved?
This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the knowledge domains resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the research activities on human dimensions of global environmental change. We analyzed how 2286 publications between 1967 and 2005 are related in terms of co-authorship relations, and citation relations.
For the first time, this handbook comprehensively describes various models used to study and predict sea-level rise and subsequent impact potential on coastal areas. The handbook explains contributing factors and highlights data, techniques, and models that scientists and engineers use to document trends of sea-level and forecast future impact on coastal ecosystems and coastal communities.
In order to understand obstacles to securing garbage from bears at the municipal levels, authors conducted semi-structured interviews of local government administrations and waste service providers.
A comprehensive bibliometric analysis of 8027 articles on sociology of natural resources and environmental sociology finds empirically-based characterization of the two fields, and highlights the need for more sustained synthesis across different knowledge domains.
This article discusses the potential for invertebrates, particularly butterflies, to be used as flagship species.
Changing management policy is a long-term commitment, and there are many challenges specific to integrating ecosystems services into management and decision-making practice.
This article investigates the role of local field offices of Parks Canada in shaping collaborative management of human–wildlife interactions in two national parks.
This on-line self-tutorial is the product of collaboration between Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis and the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS).
Human societies are confronted with a continuous stream of new problems. Many of these problems are caused by a limited sector of society but cause “spillover costs” to society as a whole. Here we show how a combination of mechanisms tends to delay effective regulation of such situations.
Thieler is combining science and smartphone technology to help study a threatened bird – the Atlantic Coast piping plover. Learn how iPlover – an app Rob and his coworkers developed – is making a difference, and how you can get involved with citizen science.
This article defines social resilience as the ability of groups or communities to cope with external stresses and disturbances as a result of social, political and environmental change. This definition highlights social resilience in relation to the concept of ecological resilience which is a characteristic of ecosystems to maintain themselves in the face of disturbance. There is a clear link between social and ecological resilience, particularly for social groups or communities that are dependent on ecological and environmental resources for their livelihoods.
The purpose of this literature review is to summarize and synthesize the available information regarding the impacts of socioeconomic factors on coastal and watershed restoration in the Puget Sound, Wash. This review revealed that socioeconomic factors play an important role in determining the designation, process, and success of restoration projects. This review is divided into several sections, each addressing a different socioeconomic topic area related to restoration.
Each year in Canada thousands of acres of land burn in wildfires threatening nearby communities. While most wildfire management focuses on fire suppression, there is increased focus on reducing risk to communities before wildfire, which requires an understanding of the biophysical risk and the social aspects of wildfire risk management.
The article suggests how managers can increase participants' perceptions of an agreement as legitimate by understanding the social control frames brought to the table and by incorporating aspects of the frames to the conflict management process.
This article contributes to understanding about the potential and limitations of social learning for collaborative natural resource management.
This book, by the four leading experts on social marketing for sustainability, explains how to use community-based social marketing (CBSM) to create sustainable behavior change.
Social Marketing: Influencing Behaviors for Good</em>, presents the full story for planning and implementing programs for social behavior change.
Environmental problems are people problems, and as such there is a demand for better integration of social sciences into conservation training and practice. This book provides a range of theories that students and practitioners can apply to their work.
Social and ecological vulnerability to disasters and outcomes of any particular extreme event are influenced by buildup or erosion of resilience both before and after disasters occur. Resilient social-ecological systems incorporate diverse mechanisms for living with, and learning from, change and unexpected shocks. Disaster management requires multilevel governance systems that can enhance the capacity to cope with uncertainty and surprise by mobilizing diverse sources of resilience.
The official Journal of the International Association for Society and Natural Resources bringing together social science research on present and emerging environmental and natural resource issues.
Climate impact assessment needs to take account of two interrelated processes: socioeconomic change and climate change. We argue that scenarios represent heuristic tools that encourage social learning in climate impact assessment. The advantages and disadvantages of a scenario-based approach are explored using examples from regional climate impact assessment in the UK.
Ecosystems provide a wide range of services to society. Some forms of use affect the quality of the ecosystem, reducing its value for other users. This leads to a conflict of interest that is often settled through political processes, resulting in some form of regulation. We link theory on ecosystem response to theories from the socioeconomic branches of science to analyze the mechanisms behind two widespread problems associated with such political solutions.
In the northeastern United States, some coyotes carry genetic signatures from past hybridization events with eastern wolves (C. lupus lycaon). These so-called "coywolves" may have differential predation or competitive success compared with the western origin coyotes with whom they share the contemporary landscape.
This study explores the spatial variation element of people's attitudes toward brown bears living nearby .
Covering every step from planning the process and collecting the information, this guideline also provides sample templates used at different times in the information and analysis processes.
This study of attitudes toward offshore wind energy examines stakeholder attitudes using fuzzy cognitive mapping.
This article identifies and compares meanings of wildfire risk mitigation for stakeholders in the Front Range of Colorado, USA. We examine the case of a collaborative partnership sponsored by government agencies and directed to decrease hazardous fuels in interface areas.
Systems for management of water throughout the developed world have been designed and operated under the assumption of stationarity. Stationarity—the idea that natural systems fluctuate within an unchanging envelope of variability—is a foundational concept that permeates training and practice in water-resource engineering.
This report examines promoting engagement of local older adults in places they already congregate, in order to better understand health conccerns, challenges of aging, and how this interacts with pursuit of a healthy leisure lifestyle.
Capturing what is important, interesting and meaningful about a particular place then relaying it to others.
This paper summarizes the results of a 3-day workshop on challenges and opportunities of communicating about the impact of climate change on public lands.
The author, a social psychology professor at California State University, San Marcos focusing on promoting conservation, begins by summarizing research findings on the effects of behavior change, quickly identifying that no single tool works all the time – effectiveness is situational.
This report is a comprehensive status assessment of 45 species of bats in North America and Mexico.
Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes.
Meeting fundamental human needs while preserving Earth's life support systems will require an accelerated transition toward sustainability. A new field of sustainability science is emerging that seeks to understand the fundamental character of interactions between nature and society and to encourage those interactions along more sustainable trajectories. Such an integrated, place-based science will require new research strategies and institutional innovations to enable them especially in developing countries still separated by deepening divides from mainstream science.
Forest conservation can be a source of tension between competing priorities and interests from forestry, science, administration and nature conservation organizations. Scientists have developed a framework of conservation objectives whereby targets can be compared and analyzed and more closely involve forest conservation stakeholders, including members of the public.
In cases where physical removal of alligators in human-dominated landscapes is not viable, conservation education programs provide a more realistic strategy to address this issue. This paper presents an examination of two education approaches: a classroom-based program and a field excursion.
Originally written for recipients of National Science Foundation grants, this handbook is beneficial to all program creators and managers. This guide is divided into four sections: overview and types of evaluation, steps in evaluation, summary of quantitative vs. qualitative data collection and analysis, and strategies for culturally responsive evaluation.
This info-graphic shows the benefits of public lands, the economic contributions from BLM-managed lands in terms of supported jobs and economic output. The results are divided by state and region, as well as overall.
Survey response rates have been in decline, and researchers have been exploring an alternative survey method to increase participation. Drop-off/Pick-up (DOPU) has performed well in many circumstances, though it has a higher cost than mail surveys. This article reviews the DOPU method and which circumstances yield positive results.
This report is a compilation of presentations at a workshop titled The Conservation Social Sciences: Clarifying ‘what?”, “how?” and ‘why?” to Inform Conservation Practice, held in conjunction with the North American Congress for Conservation Biology, July 2014.
While the cause is not know, studying the geographic regions where BEN is prevalent reveals that the cause may be environmental, with genetic factors contributing to which families are affected.
This article proposes the craft-theory dialectic as a novel way to conceptualize advancement in the field of public participation.
People who want to tackle tough social problems and achieve beneficial community outcomes are beginning to understand that multiple sectors of a democratic society—business, nonprofits and philanthropies, the media, the community, and government—must collaborate to deal effectively and humanely with the challenges.
This article presents findings from a study of 500 rural residents in the Chattooga River Basin about attitudes toward ecosystem management.
The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin are assessed by comparing simulated hydrologic and water resources scenarios derived from down scaled climate simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (PCM) to scenarios driven by observed historical (1950–1999) climate.
The results of an experimental `end to end' assessment of the effects of climate change on water resources in the western United States are described. The assessment focuses on the potential effects of climate change over the first half of the 21st century on the Columbia, Sacramento/San Joaquin, and Colorado river basins. The paper describes the methodology used for the assessment, and it summarizes the principal findings of the study.
This paper contributes to the literature underscoring the importance of climatic variance by developing a framework for incorporating the means and tails of the distributions of rainfall and temperature into empirical models of agricultural production. The methodology is applied to estimate the impact of climate change on the discrete choice decision to adopt irrigation since it is an important adaptation to climate change.
One region with a history of political conflict over shared water resources is the Colorado River Basin in the United States and Mexico. While past disagreements over water have mostly been resolved, future climatic changes that adversely affect the existing hydrologic regime of the basin cannot be discounted. This paper examines the possibility that future long-term climatic changes may exacerbate shortages in the Colorado River. Political conflicts and tensions that arise from reductions in water supply in both the United States and Mexico are evaluated and discussed, together with recommendations for incorporating the issue of climatic change into existing international treaties and agreements.
We argue that globalization is a central feature of human–environment systems which are also known as socio-ecological systems (SESs). In this article, we focus on the effects of globalization on the resilience, vulnerability, and adaptability of these systems.
Facing tight resource constraints, conservation organizations must allocate funds available for habitat protection as effectively as possible. Often, they combine spatially referenced economic and biodiversity data to prioritize land for protection.
The organization and description of a comprehensive ecosystem model useful to ecosystem management is necessary. In this article, we propose the human ecosystem as an organizing concept for ecosystem management. First, we describe the history of the human ecosystem idea; both biological ecology and mainstream social theories provide useful guidance. Next, we present the key elements of a human ecosystem model: critical resources (natural, socioeconomic, and cultural), social institutions, social cycles, and social order (identities, norms, and hierarchies).
The human ecosystem model presented in an accompanying article in this issue (Machlis et al. 1997) has several applications. One such application is as an organizing concept in selecting social indicators for ecosystem management. This article describes a contemporary example of such an application using the Upper Columbia River Basin (UCRB). Social indicators are statistics that can be collected over time and used for policy and management. The human ecosystem model provides a rationale for selecting specific social indicators to assess socioeconomic conditions.
Ecosystems are not homogeneous, and often exist in bi-stable states of two competing ecosystems. Individual ecosystems in this bi-stable system must compete for resources, as well as absorb the impact of human interactions. This article utilizes a mathematical equation to evaluate human impact on heterogeneous ecosystems to better understand human impact as dynamic, rather than fixed.
This report from the U.S. Global Change Research Program describes the ways in which climate change is affecting the health of American people.
This study explores visitor perceptions of the Danube Floodplains National Park and how their past experience, place attachment, place identity, and place dependence influence their behavior toward the park and their perceptions of the social and environmental site conditions.
This memo provides insights into what language to use in order to connect with the American public.
Web surveys can suffer from their nonrandom nature (coverage error) and low response rate (nonresponse error). Therefore, web surveys should be supported by mail surveys to eliminate these problems. However, using different survey methods together may introduce another problem: the mode effect. This experimental study investigated the mode effect between two survey modes. A randomly selected group of 1,500 teachers were assigned to two experimental groups, one of which received mail surveys, while the other received web surveys.
The article covers key events in the awareness and protection of the monarch butterfly, the role of the butterfly as a 'boundary object', and the general power the species has to mobilize people and instigate policy discussion.
This magazine article from Outside discusses the dilemma of preserving natural places despite high levels of recreation.
Energy Companies That Spend More Than They Make No Longer in Vogue
Bees are an integral part of the human experience, and their plight affects everyone. Colony collapse disorder was first recognized on a large scale in 2007 and remains a popular topic as we examine honeybees and other pollinators, our dependence on them, and what can be done to help stop their rapid decline in population.
Some 90 percent of the Guyanese population are at risk from contemporary flood hazard and the potential impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. Such risks are not the product of physical systems alone, and by using a political ecology frame the geography of flood hazard in urban environments can be seen to coevolve with political, social and economic systems. These systems are explored by a historical review which traces the roots of present vulnerability to the colonial experience, and an analysis of contemporary vulnerabilities which draws from a peri-urban and an urban case study.
The chapter offers a framework for planning outdoor education with place in mind for place-responsive outdoor teaching.
The problem of fit is about the interplay between the human and ecosystem dimensions in social-ecological systems that are not just linked but truly integrated. In 1997, we were invited to produce one of three background papers related to a, at that time, new initiative called Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDEG), a research activity of the International Human Dimensions Program of Global Environmental Change (IHDP). The paper, which exists as a discussion paper of the IHDP, has generated considerable interest.
This study tests the relationship between county spending on parks and recreation operations and all-cause mortality over a 30-year period. It was found that increasing park spending by $100 per capita is associated with an average decrease in mortality by .5 deaths per 100,000 people.
Higher parks and recreation spending was associated with better self-rated health. The relationship held for adult men and women, but not youth. Increasing Contributions to parks and recreation may improve public health.
This article explores the emotions associated with ecotourism experiences and how these can lead to a desire for learning and positive conservation attitudes.
Social norms have been shown to impact behaviors, but with mixed results. The theory of normative social behavior delineates factors that moderate the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors, and it addresses the attributes of behaviors that make them susceptible to normative influence. This study tests whether group orientation moderates the impact of descriptive norms on water conservation attitudes and behavioral intentions. Findings indicate a consistent pattern of interactions for descriptive norms and group orientation on both attitudes and behavioral intent. Implications for normative theory and campaign design are addressed.
Clean energy technology has changed dramatically and is rapidly expanding over the last decade. While many advances are now possible on a large scale, individual areas globally still struggle with its development and production. This paper evaluates several cases where Western clean energy technology was exported to the East, and the situation it created in the local economy and for the Eastern and Western governments.
A study of dolphins examines a series of indicators for how likely an animal is to acquire a new behavior. The article highlights findings on dolphins accepting food from humans and identified two of the strongest indicators for adapting this behavior, and discusses the implications of these findings for food-seeking behavior in other human-wildlife circumstances.
This book brings together the nation's top sociological researchers in an effort to catalog the modern catastrophe that is Hurricane Katrina.
This paper introduces an analytical framework for evaluating the vulnerability of people and places to environmental and social forces. The framework represents the relative vulnerability of a variable of concern (e.g. such as agricultural yield) to a set of disturbing forces (e.g. climate change, market fluctuations) by a position on a three-dimensional analytical surface, where vulnerability is defined as a function of sensitivity, exposure, and the state relative to a threshold of damage.
The causes and global context of the North American drought between 1998 and 2004 are examined using atmospheric reanalyses and ensembles of atmosphere model simulations variously forced by global SSTs or tropical Pacific SSTs alone.
Scenarios are used to explore the consequences of different adaptation and mitigation strategies under uncertainty. In this paper, two scenarios are used to explore developments with (1) no mitigation leading to an increase of global mean temperature of 4 °C by 2100 and (2) an ambitious mitigation strategy leading to 2 °C increase by 2100.
The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocksthat produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth’s life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet.We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations.
Understanding the social dimensions of conservation opportunity is crucial for conservation planning in multiple-use landscapes. However, factors that influence the feasibility of implementing conservation actions, such as the history of landscape management, and landholders’ willingness to engage are often difficult or time consuming to quantify and rarely incorporated into planning. We examined how conservation agencies could reduce costs of acquiring such data by developing predictive models of management feasibility parameterized with social and biophysical factors likely to influence landholders’ decisions to engage in management.
Water availability and use are closely connected with energy development and use. Water cannot be delivered to homes, businesses, and industries without energy, and most forms of energy development require large amounts of water.
The WiRe team implements tiered wildfire risk assessment to inform wildfire education programs. The approach uses two datasets: rapid wildfire assessment, and social surveys.
Gross output by industry is a macroeconomic tool that examines economic activity, and corrects for policy errors caused by assuming GDP and consumer spending are the primary drivers for the economy. Starting April 25, the Bureau of Economic Analysis will release a new way to measure the economy each quarter. It's called gross output, and it's the first significant macroeconomic tool to come into regular use since gross domestic product was developed in the 1940s.
Does lethal control of wolves affect the inclination to kill wolves illegally; does agency trust or other factors relate to tolerance of wolves; what is the role of focus groups in complex wildlife issues?
This website, based on the work of Douglas McKenzie-Mohr, provides tools and resources for creating and implementing a community based social marketing (CBSM) plan.
This comprehensive toolkit is a resource for practitioners to engage audiences using tried-and-tested steps, strategies and tools.
Recent years have seen a number of challenges to social stability and order, ranging from terrorist attacks and natural disasters to epidemics such as AIDS and SARS. Such challenges have generated specific policy responses, such as enhanced security at transportation hubs and planned deployment of a global tsunami detection network. However, the range of challenges and the practical impossibility of adequately addressing each in turn argue for adoption of a more comprehensive systems perspective.
This publication provides descriptions of selected articles regarding Traditional Ecological Knowledge of fire and Western Fire Science. It describes key article points so that one wishing to research the issue more can preview the literature. Also, it discusses the possibility of turning to TEK more with time for forest management.
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an iconic Arctic species, but residents of Arctic coastal communities are among the few who have opportunities to observe their behavior for extended periods of time. Documenting traditional knowledge about polar bears is thus an important research approach, especially in light of recent rapid changes to summer sea ice extent. We interviewed polar bear hunters in seven Alaska Native communities along the coast of the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea. Our study confirmed findings from similar research conducted in the mid-1990s and added information about the responses of polar bears to more recent environmental change.
This Trail Planning Toolkit was developed by Russell Clark, a project manager for the National Park Service – Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance program. The idea for the toolkit developed when Russell Clark, coordinating three multi-county trail planning projects and 10 workshops in fewer than three months, needed a consistent process for collaborating with multiple partners and gathering large amounts of information from community members and trail user groups.
Avitourism is one of the faster growing subsectors of ecotourism, recognized for its economic value. Much of our current understanding of the economic value of avitourism revolves around bird festivals, migration events, or well-known birdwatching sites.
In this paper, Martha Monroe discusses two avenues for influencing behavior to become more environmentally responsible: social marketing and environmental literacy through educational programs.
Unglulates (hoofed mammals) and vehicle collisions are serious challenges for conservation management of various large species throughout the world. This report explores how sensitive statistical database are to how frequently or consistently these collisions are reported.
While many studies are using citizen science data, this report examines socioeconomic factors that may influence these records as much if not more than considerations for the coyote's habitat and behavior. The article explores how land managers can account for and use these factors to increase their understanding of coyote-human interactions and monitoring conflict developments.
This fact sheet explains the what, why, and how behind the field of human dimensions as it relates to bird conservation.
It is a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service priority to diversify our organization and network of supporters. To garner broad support for conservation and the mission of the Service, we must provide opportunities for people to find, appreciate, and care for nature and wildlife. We have a prime opportunity to connect with the 80% of the U.S. population living in urban areas through our Urban National Wildlife Refuges, Urban Refuge Partnerships, and other urban-based Service projects.
Vulnerability is registered not by exposure to hazards alone; it also resides in the resilience of the system experiencing the hazard. Resilience (the capacity of a system to absorb recurrent disturbances, such as natural disasters, so as to retain essential structures, processes and feedbacks) is important for the discussion of vulnerability for three reasons...
NOAA conducts a two-phase research project mapping current noise patterns in US waters and developing strategic management and policy mechanisms to reach long-term goals in reducing noise pollution. While the article focuses on the lasting effects on marine wildlife, the two phase study led by NOAA also explores the implications for people and ocean dependent industries.
Governance and institutions are critical determinants of adaptive capacity and resilience. Yet the make-up and relationships between governance components and mechanisms that may or may not contribute to adaptive capacity remain relatively unexplored empirically. This paper builds on previous research focusing on integrated water resources management in Brazil to ‘unpack’ water governance mechanisms that may shape the adaptive capacity of water systems to climatic change.
How we view ourselves is central to the conflicts we are involved in. These identities determine the intractability or the resolvability of our conflicts.
This paper presents examples of how the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has used traditional knowledge from Alaska Native peoples in decision making in the North Slope Borough, Alaska. BOEM used that traditional knowledge in designing, planning and conducting scientific research; applied information from both systems at the earliest opportunity; used traditional knowledge in environmental impacts assessment; and consulted with indigenous leaders at key decision points. This demonstrates that using traditional knowledge and science, early on, allows for more complete use of pertinent information.
The Natural Resources Damage Assessment and Restoration Program, part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, restores natural resources that have been injured by oil spills or hazardous substances released into the environment. The Program's assessments help determine the restoration needs that address the public's loss/use of these resources.
Water is a fundamental interest for Tribal leaders and Tribal lands. Having adequate water quality, flow, and access are vital for healthy lands and people. USGS scientists work closely with Tribal leaders around the country to address concerns for water availability and quality not just for health and livelihood, but for cultural heritage as well. Collecting and monitoring water networks on Tribal lands helps scientists and Tribal leaders determine the best course of action and management practices to ensure the restored health and continued preservation of aquatic habitats.
This paper describes a systematic, stakeholder-driven method for choosing an effective flagship species for a conservation campaign.
This analysis explores the differences in Affective and Cognitive Destination Image among three Hudson River Valley (New York) tourism communities. Multiple regressions were used with six dimensions of visitors' images to predict future intention to revisit. Two of the three regression models were significant. The only significantly contributing independent variable in both models was cultural amenities provided by the communities.
The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions.
The Public Open Spaces Attributable Index (POSAI) was used in this study in New Zealand to assess associations between public open space attributes and children's use as well as independent travel to public open spaces.
This study uses high-resolution flood and loss models to quantify the impacts of coastal wetlands in the northeastern USA.
The VBA technical guide is designed to acquaint Forest Service staff and line officers with the concepts of values, beliefs, and attitudes; to demonstrate ways in which public values, beliefs, and attitudes (VBAs) and associated concepts can be measured and analyzed; and to suggest methods for applying VBA information to decisions about projects and plans. While this is a Forest Service document, the concepts and methods are widely applicable.
This study assesses the value of restoring forested wetlands via the U.S. government's Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley by quantifying and monetizing ecosystem services. The three focal services are greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, nitrogen mitigation, and waterfowl recreation. Site- and region-level measurements of these ecosystem services are combined with process models to quantify their production on agricultural land, which serves as the baseline, and on restored wetlands.
This is a user-friendly guide for managers and specialists working in conservation planning in Alaska designed to improve participation for Alaska Natives.
The framework provides a flexible process for managing visitor use on federally managed lands and waters
Managers continue to be challenged with uncertainty about the balance as it relates to the individual agency's mandates for protecting the natural and cultural resources which is amplified by inconsistent terminology and divergent management approaches. This position paper is a collaboration among agencies to define visitor use management and visitor capacity, clarify the relationships between these two concepts, and provide a framework for federal land managers using these concepts to meet agency goals.
This paper reviews research traditions of vulnerability to environmental change and the challenges for present vulnerability research in integrating with the domains of resilience and adaptation. Vulnerability is the state of susceptibility to harm from exposure to stresses associated with environmental and social change and from the absence of capacity to adapt. Antecedent traditions include theories of vulnerability as entitlement failure and theories of hazard.
This paper presents a participatory approach to investigate vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate variability and water stress in the Lakhwar watershed in Uttarakhand State, India. Highly water stressed microwatersheds were identified by modelling surface runoff, soil moisture development, lateral runoff, and groundwater recharge. The modelling results were shared with communities in two villages, and timeline exercises were carried out to allow them to trace past developments that have impacted their lives and livelihoods, and stimulate discussion about future changes and possible adaptation interventions.
Public policies to mitigate the impacts of extreme events such as hurricanes or terrorist attacks will differ depending on whether they focus on reducing risk or reducing vulnerability. Here we present and defend six assertions aimed at exploring the benefits of vulnerability-based policies.
Despite improvements in understanding biophysical response to climate change, a better understanding of how such changes will affect societies is still needed. We evaluated effects of climate change on the coupled human–environmental system of the McKenzie River watershed in the Oregon Cascades in order to assess its vulnerability. Published empirical and modeling results indicate that climate change will alter both the timing and quantity of streamflow, but understanding how these changes will impact different water users is essential to facilitate adaptation to changing conditions.
This paper presents a generally applicable conceptual framework of vulnerability that combines a nomenclature of vulnerable situations and a terminology of vulnerability concepts based on the distinction of four fundamental groups of vulnerability factors. This conceptual framework is applied to characterize the vulnerability concepts employed by the main schools of vulnerability research and to review earlier attempts at classifying vulnerability concepts. None of these one-dimensional classification schemes reflects the diversity of vulnerability concepts identified in this review.
This handbook begins with a brief history of project evaluation and its use in modern society.
The high demand for water, the recent multiyear drought (1999–2007), and projections of global warming have raised questions about the long-term sustainability of water supply in the southwestern United States. In this study, the potential effects of specific levels of atmospheric warming on water-year streamflow in the Colorado River basin are evaluated using a water-balance model, and the results are analyzed within the context of a multi-century tree-ring reconstruction (1490–1998) of streamflow for the basin.
Water Crises and Governance critically examines the relationship between water crises and governance in the face of challenges to provide water for growing human demand and environmental needs.
This portal provides access to the thousands of water resources reports produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).
The article defines 'intractable conflicts', offers intractable environmental conflict examples, and provides steps and strategies for how to deal with them.
Short-term climate forecasting offers the promise of improved hydrologic management strategies. However, water resource managers in the United States have proven reluctant to incorporate them in decision making. While managers usually cite “poor reliability” of the forecasts as the reason for this, they are seldom able to demonstrate knowledge of the actual performance of forecasts or to consistently articulate the level of reliability that they would require.
This handbook is intended to support communication within and among states, their respective regulatory and resource agencies, non-profit organizations, municipal water providers, industries, and farming communities about adapting western state water laws to meet the numerous demand and supply challenges that lie ahead. It also serves as a means of transferring ideas and spurring innovation in policy by collecting some of the more novel approaches to water law in the Western U.S.1 As a result, it is written for a wide audience.
This article focuses on the positive health benefits that urban wetlands can provide given that they are healthy and maintained.
There is mounting empirical evidence that interacting with nature delivers measurable benefits to people. Reviews of this topic have generally focused on a specific type of benefit, been limited to a single discipline, or covered the benefits delivered from a particular type of interaction. Here we construct novel typologies of the settings, interactions and potential benefits of people-nature experiences, and use these to organize an assessment of the benefits of interacting with nature. We discover that evidence for the benefits of interacting with nature is geographically biased towards high latitudes and Western societies, potentially contributing to a focus on certain types of settings and benefits. Social scientists have been the most active researchers in this field.
This article discusses the need for better awareness of cultural features and worldviews by agencies working with Yup'ik people in Alaska.
This article focuses specifically on how and why managers might go about using stakeholder identification and analysis techniques in order to help their organizations meet their mandates, fulfill their missions and create public value.
A water budget analysis shows that under current conditions there is a 10% chance that live storage in Lakes Mead and Powell will be gone by about 2013 and a 50% chance that it will be gone by 2021 if no changes in water allocation from the Colorado River system are made. This startling result is driven by climate change associated with global warming, the effects of natural climate variability, and the current operating status of the reservoir system.
Reintroducing the American Bison to various locations throughout the west is becoming a reality. Research and observation in specific regions has been continuous since 2005 and explores the ecological impact and expected changes for the existing wildlife with the presence of these large herbivores. As a result of these studies, we'll see herds of bison returning to Great Sand Dune National Park and Preserve and other areas where the environment has been found suitable for supporting herd management.
Recent journalism and scholarship have noted a years-long decline in Americans' participation in rural forms of outdoor recreation such as hunting. While some attempt has been made to understand these declines few have analyzed the causes of these changes in a theoretically rigorous empirical manner. This study addresses this issue in two empirical approaches. First, we analyze survey data on hunting and various theoretical predictors from the General Social Survey. Second, we statistically analyze changes in hunting license acquisitions at the state level for a period of several years.
Many stakeholder analysis tools focus on the population for the project and not the people resources required to implement the project.
Stakeholder analysis means many things to different people. Various methods and approaches have been developed in different fields for different purposes, leading to confusion over the concept and practice of stakeholder analysis.
This is a free PDF book about advertising for nonprofit organizations.
This free PDF book discusses why, despite the best intentions, so many presentations miss the mark on engaging, educating, or persuading their audiences.
This article, by George Lakoff, discusses how we frame our messages about the environment and how different types of framing influence how people react to the message.
Valuing nature can be tricky business when facing whether to focus on protecting nature for instrumental values or for intrinsic values. The authors propose focusing on another set of values: relational values.
The travel cost model is used to test and examine the effects of wild and prescribed fire on visitation by bikers and hikers in New Mexico. The results from this study differ from previous findings, and have implications for fire and recreation managers designing efficient and cost effective plans based on the National Fire Plan.
Social science offers rich descriptions of relationships between wildland–urban interface residents and wildfire, but syntheses across different contexts might gloss over important differences. We investigate the potential extent of such differences using data collected consistently in sixty-eight Colorado communities and hierarchical modeling.
Risk perception has an important influence on wildlife management and is particularly relevant to issues that present health risks, such as those associated with wildlife disease management. Knowledge of risk perceptions is useful to wildlife health professionals in developing communication messages that enhance public understanding of wildlife disease risks and that aim to increase public support for disease management.
Wildlife disease management (WDM) is one of the great challenges of contemporary wildlife management. Experience with chronic wasting disease (CWD) indicates the importance of human dimensions in WDM.
In order to inform land protection and management strategies in San Diego County, this report from the Wildlife Conservation Society describes the threats and stressors that may be affecting reserves that support 103 plant and animal species.
This is a series of reports to determine wildlife value orientations among publics in the western United States and to identify factors influencing the presence of these orientations.
This report describes the benefits that can come from wildlife watching tourism, and focuses on practical ways to use planning and visitor management to ensure the long-term sustainability of this activity. This report is based on 12 case studies
This book takes a look at the barriers women face when considering asking for changes in employment, salary, or other roles and situations; and walks through how to evaluate opportunities and reframing interactions to ask for what they want.
This workshop report summarizes the development of a citizen science framework for use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Society is confronted with environmental challenges unprecedented in magnitude, scope, pace, and complexity. The potentially serious consequences are already visible in communities struggling to maintain their delicate social, economic, and political structure. Over 150 authors contribute to this report which calls for action and more efficient collaboration in the international social science community in conjunction with decision-makers, practitioners, and other people who act on social science research.
The report highlights research aimed at the current state of outdoor education in Scotland for people ages three to 18 years old. The research has two data areas of focus: a survey of school and pre-school outdoor education curriculum, and data from interviews with individual young people ages three to 18 about their outdoor learning.
This paper considers the ways in which personal experience of a place influences values, beliefs, and wisdoms people share with their social group.